By O. Seliktar
Coming on the heels of September eleven, Operation Iraqi Freedom has concentrated the limelight at the manner within which the us predicts and manages political switch. The failure to discover WMD and extra very important, the ongoing violence in Iraq rather than the was hoping for democracy, has engender an acrimonious debate at the explanations of the Bush management and its makes use of or misuses of intelligence. The query of who bought what wrong or right has been fought out alongside ideological, and partisan traces, with supporters claiming that, given what used to be identified approximately Saddam Hussein, the choice to alter his regime used to be justified and detractors arguing team of mostly Jewish neoconservatives, performing on behalf of Israel, manipulated intelligence with the intention to trick the us into an pointless and dear war. The ebook presents a scientific and aim research of the issues that faced American intelligence in interpreting the habit of the highly secretive and complicated Iraq regime and its enigmatic leader.
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Extra info for The Politics of Intelligence and American Wars with Iraq (The Middle East in Focus)
Iraq’s nuclear ambition was especially worrisome to Israel, which for a number of years had complained to American and French authorities about the Osiraq nuclear reactor near Baghdad. With no help forthcoming from the West, in early 1981, the Likud government of Menachem Begin held a number of meetings to consider bombing the facility. Subsequent accounts revealed that the cabinet concluded that Saddam Hussein was too unpredictable and thus undeterrable, an opinion shared by Amazia Baram, an Iraq expert from Haifa University who apparently advised Israeli intelligence.
Iraq’s blossoming WMD program attracted some public attention in the United States. On March 30, 1984, the New York Times revealed that a German consortium was helping Iraq with chemical weapons. The case received more publicity in Germany where Karl Kolb, the company head, was a well-known figure (Timmerman 1991, 146–147, 189). The same year, two researchers, Joseph D. Douglass and Neil C.
Despite its popularity, the democratic peace made few converts among leading IR realists who were quick to offer a rebuttal. John J. Mearsheimer (1990a, 6–8, 52, 1990b, 35–36) described it as a “shallow construct” and reiterated that “distribution and character of military power” were the causes of wars. ” In line with the logic of MAD-induced peace, Mearsheimer advocated a modest increase in nuclear proliferation. Kenneth Waltz (1990) was another leading proponent of MAD-anchored peace. Waltz, who in 1979 famously predicted that the cold war would last well into the twenty-first century, now argued that in order to assure the continuity of nuclear deterrence, the strict ban on proliferation should be modified or even lifted.
The Politics of Intelligence and American Wars with Iraq (The Middle East in Focus) by O. Seliktar