By C. Manning
Can elections create democrats? Why and the way do previously armed competition teams choose to put money into electoral politics or to undermine them? This e-book argues that the reply lies within the styles of inter- and intraparty struggles created by means of participation in repeated elections over the years.
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Extra info for The Making of Democrats: Elections and Party Development in Postwar Bosnia, El Salvador, and Mozambique
85 The range of variables that could be at the root of changes in party performance may appear overwhelming to party leaders, leading them to take inappropriate action or to take no action at all. Party leaders have a variety of strategic options to choose from, should they decide to undertake change. One option is initiating changes in internal party governance. Another is to change the way the party interacts with the formal institutions of the system or with other parties. Parties may seek institutional change—by pushing for electoral reform, for greater civil liberties or better administration in the next elections, etc.
71 Similarly, Panebianco suggests that party development is an inverse function of resource availability. “The more public resources available, the less the leaders’ need to highly institutionalize the organization . . ”72 This offers support for one of the central hypotheses of this book—the more competitive the electoral arena, the greater the chances that elections will, over time, lead to adaptive behavior within parties. As Rustow predicted, politicians will perceive that a process of “natural selection” is at work which advantages those who adapt most effectively to the rules of the game.
Frank Wilson argues that, when party leaders recognize the need to change in response to some challenge, they are most likely to try small changes first, such as changing campaign tactics rather than changing party platform or reaching out to a new electoral base. ”89 Even for more institutionalized parties, opting for change in the party’s identity could provoke a challenge from internal rivals as well as alienate existing supporters of the party on voting day. This is perhaps why the Serbian Democratic Party (SDS) in Bosnia first moved to change candidate selection procedures, then instituted recruitment and promotion procedures that served to eliminate many of the most hard-line nationalist activists from eligibility for party office or candidacy for public office.
The Making of Democrats: Elections and Party Development in Postwar Bosnia, El Salvador, and Mozambique by C. Manning