By Michael Fishbein
This element of the History of al-Tabari covers the caliphate of Muhammad al-Amin, who succeeded his father, Harun al-Rashid on March 24, 809, and was once killed on September 25, 813.
The concentration of this part is a unmarried occasion, the civil conflict among al-Amin and his half-brother al-Ma'mun. ahead of his demise, al-Rashid had prepared for the succession in a sequence of files signed at Mecca and deposited for safekeeping within the Ka'bah. Al-Amin was once to turn into caliph; al-Ma'mun used to be to control Khurasan with digital autonomy from Baghdad. Al-Amin may possibly neither eliminate his brother from place of work nor intrude along with his sales or army aid. additionally, al-Ma'mun was once named as al-Amin's successor, and al-Amin used to be forbidden to change the succession. If both brother violated those stipulations, he used to be to forfeit his rights.
It quickly turned obvious that the nice will to hold out those preparations didn't exist. confrontation broke out while al-Amin insisted that some of the forces that had observed al-Rashid and al-Ma'mun to Khurasan go back to Baghdad. while nearly all of military commanders obeyed the recent caliph's orders, al-Ma'mun was once enraged and countered with measures to safe his place. indignant letters have been exchanged, with al-Amin urgent his brother to make concessions that al-Ma'mun considered as opposite to the succession contract. by way of March 811, army clash used to be forthcoming. Al-Amin demanded that definite border districts be again to the regulate of Baghdad. while al-Ma'mun refused, al-Amin sent an excursion to grab the districts.
Al-Amin's hotel to strength resulted in catastrophe. Al-Ma'mun's forces, led by way of Tahir b. al-Husayn and Harthamah b. A'yan, quick closed in on Baghdad. In a siege lasting over a 12 months, Baghdad suffered large harm from the struggling with and from bombardment through siege engines. Gangs of vagrants and paupers, prepared by way of al-Amin into abnormal devices, fought one of those city guerrilla conflict. yet, with Tahir and Harthamah implementing the siege and with so much of al-Amin's affiliates having switched their loyalties to the profitable facet, the caliph was once pressured to sue for phrases. those have been labored out between representatives of al-Amin, Tahir, and Harthamah. even though, whilst the caliph boarded the boat that was once to take him into Harthamah's custody, troops unswerving to Tahir assaulted and capsized the boat. Al-Amin fell into the Tigris, was once apprehended, and used to be carried out that evening on orders from Tahir. hence ended this section of the civil battle. Al-Ma'mun used to be now caliph.
Al-Tabari's background of those years contains bills via individuals within the occasion, diplomatic letters among al-Amin and al-Ma'mun, Tahir's lengthy letter to al-Ma'mun at the situations of al-Amin's loss of life, and a dramatic eyewitness account of al-Amin's final hours. additionally noteworthy is a 135-verse poem describing the devastation of Baghdad. The part ends with a chain of literary anecdotes at the personality of al-Amin.
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Additional resources for The History of al-Ṭabarī, Vol. 31: The War Between Brothers: The Caliphate of Muhammad al-Amin A.D. 809-813/A.H. 193-198
Al-Musayyab b. Zuhayr (who was in charge of his police Ishurtah )), and Ayyub b. Abi Sumayr54 (who was in charge of his correspondence). Of the members of his household 'Abd al-Rahman b. 'Abd al-Malik b. $alih55 and Dhu al-Ri'asatayn56 were with him-the latter was one of the men most in his esteem and closest to him . He asked their advice and told them the news. ,ooo horsemen and turn them back . " (Continuing, al-Fadl b . Sahl) said: I said to him, "Your letter and your messengers will stand in your stead, so that you will search out what the people think.
That is, Michael I Rhangabe, who ruled from Sir to 813. 93. Diwud b. 'Isi was an 'Abbisid family member, a distant cousin of alRashid. 94. 6, reports that Zubaydah, the mother of al-Amin, also made the pilgrimage this year. 20 The War between Brothers In this year, Muhammad b. Harun confirmed95 his brother alQasim b. Harun in the governorship of al-Jazirah96 to which his father had appointed him. He appointed Khuzaymah b. Khazim97 to be (al-Qasim 's) agent for al-Jazirah, and he also confirmed al - Qasim over Qinnasrin98 and the frontier strongholds 99 95.
In this year the discord between al -Amin Muhammad and his brother al-Ma'mun began . Each of them determined to oppose the other in what their father , Harun, had enjoined them to carry out in the document16 that we have mentioned that he drew up as an obligation for them and between them. built by al-Man$ar in 158 /774. See Le Strange, Baghdad, rot-:, Lessner, Topography of Baghdad, 55, 6o. 1o. The Palace of Abu fs' far al-Manger, also called the Palace of the Golden Gate or the Palace of the Green Dome, was located at the center of the Round City.
The History of al-Ṭabarī, Vol. 31: The War Between Brothers: The Caliphate of Muhammad al-Amin A.D. 809-813/A.H. 193-198 by Michael Fishbein