By Donald Metcalf
The colony-stimulating elements (CSFs) are the key regulators within the physique of the construction and task of 2 different types of white blood cells--granulocytes and macrophages. CSFs are utilized by clinicians to regard sufferers with broken immune structures, for instance, because of chemotherapy. This e-book offers a close and updated account of the invention of the CSFs, their constitution, molecular biology and mobile receptors, the biology of the CSFs in vivo and in vitro, and their current and destiny medical functions. Written by way of of the pioneers within the discovery of CSFs, it's a transparent and good illustrated survey of the historical past, present wisdom and destiny instructions of this intriguing box of research, and serves additionally as a advisor to the extra normal components of progress issue and cytokine learn. it's going to turn out a useful evaluate for telephone biologists drawn to how progress components act at the physique, in addition to for clinicians employing the end result of recent biotechnology to more advantageous sufferer care.
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Additional resources for The Hemopoietic Colony-Stimulating Factors: From Biology to Clinical Applications
5. Schematic diagram of the major stages by which mature granulocytes and monocytes are generated. After release of mature cells from the bone marrow to the blood, the cells enter the tisues and, in the case of monocytes, undergo major changes in phenotype. E denotes erythroid progenitor cells; GM, granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells; Eo, eosinophil progenitor cells. 18 The hemopoietic colony-stimulating factors The regulation of such a complex series of events must be arranged so that basal levels of cell production and function can be controlled with precision, yet massive increases in cell production can be achieved rapidly in response to emergencies such as bleeding or infections.
After discovery of the phenomenon of hemopoietic colony formation in the spleen or marrow of irradiated mice injected with bone marrow cells (Till and McCulloch, 1961), it was shown that such colonies were clones and that these colonies were generated by ancestral hemopoietic cells now regarded as more mature stem cells. Spleen colonies, when examined early (7 days), often appear to be composed of cells of only a single lineage, for example, erythroid, granulocytic, or megakaryocytic. Analysis of spleen colony populations indicated that the cell initiating such colonies, the CFU-S, was capable of self-renewal, and progeny CFU-S could form colonies of multiple types, indicating that at least some were multipotential.
Four lines of evidence indicate that commitment can be influenced by extrinsic stimuli: (a) Apparently purified mouse hemopoietic stem cells can produce different types of progeny depending on whether they are injected intrathymically or intravenously or cultured in vitro. , 1991). (b) Various combinations of factors can induce the formation by stem cells of altered proportions of committed progenitor cells of various types (Metcalf, 1991b). (c) CSFs, when acting on bipotential granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells, can bias subsequent cell formation into either the macrophage or granulocytic lineage (Metcalf and Burgess, 1982).
The Hemopoietic Colony-Stimulating Factors: From Biology to Clinical Applications by Donald Metcalf