The End of Modern History in the Middle East - download pdf or read online

By Bernard Lewis

ISBN-10: 0817912940

ISBN-13: 9780817912949

With the finishing of world strategic disagreement among superpowers, these within the center East needs to comply with a brand new fact: to simply accept ultimate accountability for his or her personal affairs, to make and realize their error, and to simply accept the implications. In The finish of recent background within the center East, Bernard Lewis discusses the way forward for the zone during this new, postimperialist period. for every and each state and for the zone as an entire, he explains, there's a diversity of different futures: at one finish, cooperation and development; on the different, a vicious circle of poverty and ignorance.

The writer examines intimately the problems most crucial to the region’s destiny. He describes oil because the present, most crucial export to the surface global from the center East yet warns that know-how will finally make it out of date, leaving those that rely exclusively on oil sales with a bleak destiny. the 3 components that can such a lot support rework the center East, based on Lewis, are Turkey, Israel, and women. He additionally argues that there's adequate within the conventional tradition of Islam at the one hand and the trendy adventure of the Muslim peoples at the different to supply the root for an enhance towards freedom within the actual feel of that observe and to accomplish the social, cultural, and clinical alterations essential to carry the center East into line with the built nations of either West and East.

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One man in particular was responsible for imbuing Young Turks’ thought with German-style economic nationalism –Parvus. Israel Lazarevich Helphand (1867–1924), generally known by his nickname Alexander Parvus, was born into a middle-class Jewish family in Berezino (currently Belarus), raised in Odessa and educated in Switzerland. He was an economic theoretician, a radical revolutionary, a controversial activist and ultimately a successful entrepreneur. 56 At intervals, accusations of Germanophilia and embezzlement of Maxim Gorky’s copyright revenues caused mistrust that chilled relations with Russian Marxists.

He denounced them as products of Freemasonry that weakened Turkish nationalism and the Ottoman state. Many of Seyfeddin’s articles were published anonymously or under a pseudonym. In his articles, Seyfeddin preaches disidentification (if not hatred) towards non-Turks. 82 The underlying message is clear: these friendly attitudes need to be discontinued in favour of social polarization and preferably action, including economic boycott. In a 1912 non-fiction article he wrote: Terrible dramas were being played out under the guise of Constitutional Rule.

38 When Şerif turned to the Turkish school, he found it in deplorable condition: unorganized, understaffed and under-equipped. Deeply impressed by this contrast, Ahmed Şerif continued his journey towards Ankara. On 22 November 1909, he arrived in ‘sleepy’ and ‘oppressive’ Ankara, a ‘large village’ where glass windows were broken, shops closed in the afternoon, and schools were languishing. Here too, the contrast between Armenians and Turks was such that Şerif felt compelled to write an alarmistic call to the latter: ‘Muslims of Ankara!

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The End of Modern History in the Middle East by Bernard Lewis

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