By R. B. Smith (auth.)
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Additional info for The Development of a Medicine
S OJ c 'c ' 0; E ~ Q) 50 OJ c:'" e Q) Q) 0.. o '-------'---------------Time .. Figure 23 The half-life of a compound is that time when half of an administered dose is present in the body. This will vary with the route of administration, since with an intravenous dose all will enter the body in a short period of time. With an oral dose, however, not all may be absorbed . radio-labelled compound (depending upon the compound's characteristics labelled with carbon 14 or other radioactive isotope) both orally and intravenously.
The speed of the injection which will govern the concentration of the drug in the body may well be critical in determining the observed effects. A ready example is that of morphine which if given slowly has certain analgesic and other central nervous system effects, but if given very rapidly as a 'bolus' could kill a morphine-naive recipient. Half-life Studies Where drugs are intended to be given as eye or ear drops their capacity to produce pharmacological effects must also be carefully worked out.
And the compound's physical behaviour in this respect will have a bearing on the pharmacological action and the distribution achieved together with its metabolism and elimination (since only the unbound fraction is available for these activities and processes). Excretion Finally, the pattern of excretion from the animal body must be investigated. We have already seen that some compounds may be excreted via the bile into the gut only to be the subject of re-uptake. Other compounds may be excreted via the kidneys.
The Development of a Medicine by R. B. Smith (auth.)