Download PDF by Vishram Singh: Textbook of Anatomy Abdomen and Lower Limb.

By Vishram Singh

The stomach is the decrease a part of the trunk less than the diaphragm. Its partitions encompass a wide hollow space referred to as the belly hollow space. The stomach hollow space is far extra broad than what apparently from the skin. It extends upward deep to the costal margin as much as the diaphragm and downward in the bony pelvis. hence, a substantial a part of the belly hollow space is overlapped by way of the reduce a part of the thoracic cage above and through the bony pelvis lower than. The belly hollow space is subdivided by way of the aircraft of the pelvic inlet right into a better top half, i.e., the belly hollow space right, and a smaller decrease half, i.e., the pelvic hollow space. Clinically the time period belly hollow space stands for stomach hollow space right.

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Extra info for Textbook of Anatomy Abdomen and Lower Limb.

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Since the intestine protrude through a defect in all layers of the abdominal wall at umbilical ring a thin transparent membrane—the amnion—covers it. (d) Congenital umbilical hernia (Fig. 6): In this condition the intestine protrudes through the umbilicus due to weakness of umbilical scar, hence it is covered by the peritoneum (for details, see Clinical and Surgical Anatomy, 2nd Edition by Vishram Singh). The umbilicus is therefore considered as hot-bed of embryology by the clinicians. SUPERFICIAL FASCIA The superficial fascia contains a variable amount of fat, maximum in the lower half of the anterior abdominal wall.

It extends on to the upper three or three and a half sacral vertebrae. 3. The sacral canal communicates with the pelvic and dorsal sacral foramina through the intervertebral foramina. Contents of Sacral Canal 1. Lower part of cauda equina (sacral and coccygeal nerve roots). 2. Filum terminale. 3. Spinal meninges. 4. Lateral sacral vessels. B. The dural tube and arachnoid mater extend up to the second sacral vertebra. Structures Emerging through Sacral Hiatus 1. Fifth sacral (S5) nerves. 2. Coccygeal (C×1) nerves.

2. In newborn, it is slightly at a lower level due to poorly developed pelvic region. 3. In old age, it comes down to lower level due to diminished tone of the abdominal muscles. Anatomical Significance 1. The level of umbilicus serves as water-shed line for venous and lymphatic drainage. The venous blood and lymph flow upward above the level of the umbilicus and downward below the level of the umbilicus. 2. , skin around the umbilicus is supplied by the 10th spinal segment. 3. It is one of the important sites of portocaval anastomosis.

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Textbook of Anatomy Abdomen and Lower Limb. by Vishram Singh

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