By Ronald Berezney, Kwang W. Jeon
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Extra info for Structural and Functional Organization of the Nuclear Matrix
Chromosome Scaffold The chromosome scaffold is a nonhistone core framework extending along the axis of the chromosome arms. , 1977b; Lewis and Laemmli, 1982). After extraction, the chromosome 22 D. HE ET AL. scaffold can be resolved as a dense filamentous network that accounts for 3-4% of the total chromosome mass (Lewis and Laemmli, 1982). Unlike the nuclear matrix, the chromosome scaffold can be visualized in intact chromosomes by silver staining (Howell and Hsu, 1979). Recently, using the highly AT-specific fluorochrome daunomycin, a coiled or folded ATrich core was observed in native chromosomes and thought to correspond to the chromosome scaffold where the GC-rich DNA loops protrude (Saitoh and Laemmli, 1994).
Interestingly, many members of this particular protein group are associated in some way with RNA metabolism. It is not surprising, therefore, that they associate with the core filaments in interphase, since this nucleoskeletal system contains mostly proteins, a small fraction of 36 D. HE E r AL. , 1990). , 1990, 1991). Moreover, it is well known that rRNA is synthesized and processed in the nucleoli. , 1993). In addition to their well-established function in the RNA metabolism, these proteins also appear to have a significant influence on nuclear structure.
In an early study, mitotic chromosomes were found to be released in clusters when dissected from living mitotic cells, suggesting the presence of an interchromosomal matrix (Hoskins, 1968). As will be described (Section III,C,5), nonrandom distribution and alignment of centromeres in interphase nuclei and mitotic cells suggests a continuous association with an underlying matrix. Indeed, the spindle matrix may serve to interconnect chromosomes and keep them in a defined order and organization. In this regard, interchromosomal connecting filaments derived from the interphase nuclear matrix may provide a continuous network around the genome.
Structural and Functional Organization of the Nuclear Matrix by Ronald Berezney, Kwang W. Jeon