By Kenneth Dean and Zheng Zhenman
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Extra info for Ritual Alliances of the Putian Plain, Volume 1: Historical Introduction to the Return of the Gods
The Qiulu river also provides water to the separate irrigation system of the Jiuliyang 九里 洋 area in the northeast corner of the Putian plain. Nowadays, the Putian alluvial plain to the east of the city is divided into nine townships: Chengjiao 城郊, Xitianwei 西天尾, Wutang 梧 塘, Hanjiang 涵江, Jiangkou 江口, Qiulu 萩蘆, Quqiao 渠橋, Huangshi 黃石, Beigao 北高, and Hushi 笏石, with a population of over 750, 000. 18 The majority of the population still resides in 724 villages scattered across the Putian plain. On average, we found the population of the 724 villages of the Putian to be over 1000 people (1020), with the population of some villages rising as high as 10000.
The satellite images include LANDSAT images from 1974, 1984, 1994, 2002 (LANDSAT 7), introduction: the survey and its main findings 37 allows us to link data and images to points on the map representing the locations of the 724 villages in the Putian plain. This system can display in map form any of the features listed in the database for each and all villages. We have also developed historical GIS maps to chart the historical evolution of the irrigated plain, the evolution of the irrigation system over time, the distribution of the lineages (surname groups), the cults of the local gods, the 153 ritual alliances that the villages have formed from the Ming onwards, and the historical distribution of scholar literati over the Song and Ming, amongst other features (see below).
This is followed by a discussion of the beginnings of lineage formation, early ancestral halls and ancestral worship in the late Song, and the spread of the lineage form in the early Ming. The historical overview then examines the mutation of early Ming li sub-cantons and their shê 社 altars of the soil and the harvest into the kernel of a new mode of local regional ritual alliances, centered in the temples of the popular gods. One can readily imagine the involvement of lineage leaders in such a process.
Ritual Alliances of the Putian Plain, Volume 1: Historical Introduction to the Return of the Gods by Kenneth Dean and Zheng Zhenman