By Hans Zeisel
"Prove It With Figures" screens a few of the instruments of the social and statistical sciences which have been utilized to the evidence of proof within the court docket and to the examine of questions of criminal value. It explains how researchers can extract the main invaluable and trustworthy info which can very easily be made on hand, and the way those efforts occasionally cross awry. within the culture of Zeisel's "Say It with Figures," a typical within the box of social records considering the fact that 1947, it clarifies, in non-technical language, the various easy difficulties universal to all efforts to figure cause-and-effect relationships. Designed as a textbook for legislations scholars who search an appreciation of the ability and bounds of empirical equipment, the paintings is also an invaluable reference for attorneys, policymakers, and individuals of the general public who want to increase their serious realizing of the statistics awarded to them. the numerous case histories contain analyses of the dying penalty, jury choice, employment discrimination, mass torts, and DNA profiling. Hans Zeisel used to be Professor of legislation and Sociology Emeritus on the college of Chicago, the place he pioneered the applying of social technology to the legislation. past, he had a amazing occupation in public opinion and marketplace learn. He has written on a large choice of subject matters, starting from study technique and historical past to legislations enforcement, juries, and Sheakespeare. He used to be elected Fellow of the yank Statistical Assoication and the yank organization for the development of technology, and in 1980 he used to be inducted into the industry learn corridor of popularity. David Kaye is Regents Professor on the Arizona kingdom collage, the place he teaches proof and comparable subject matters. An writer of a number of legislation textbooks and treatises, his paintings additionally has seemed in journals of
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In an experiment, the investigators select certain units for treatment. In an observational study, the investigators have no control over who or what receives the treatment. They can only observe, record, and analyze what nature chooses to show them. Because the resulting picture can be incomplete, inferring causation from observational data can be perilous. When proper care is observed, however, and particularly when a sufficient body of mutually reinforcing observational studies is available, these studies can be convincing.
In this setting, we should carefully scrutinize any experi~nt that claims to show that arrest is the best deterrent of future conflicts. And indeed, the Minnesota experiment has two potentially disturbing features. The fIrst is that the policeman on the scene decides whether the incident qualifi~s for the experiment. However precise the instructions, it is dangerous to have the fIeld-worker make the decision. The second problem does not relate to a possible bias on the part of the participants in the experiment, but to the way the effect is measured.
33 Profiu decision [reinstating capital punishment) was decided on July 2, 1976? Yes. And isn't it also true that the homicide rate in Florida has decreased another 17% in the fIrst three months of 1977 and 9% in the next three months of 1977? I don't - I presume you have them correct. Let me just say the problem with such figures is that the same radical decline ... has occurred ... where there is no death penalty. But it has declined in Florida? It has declined everywhere.... It has declined ...
Prove It with Figures: Empirical Methods in Law and Litigation by Hans Zeisel