By Lewis Wolpert et al.
Учебник по биологии развития.
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There is no single universal strategy or mechanism of patterning; rather, it is achieved by a variety of cellular and molecular mechanisms in different organisms and at different stages of development. Pattern formation initially involves laying down the overall body plan defining the main axes of the embIYo so that the anterior and posterior ends, and the dorsal and ventral sides of the body are specified. One can distinguish at least one main body axis in all multicellular organisms. In animals this refers to the axis that runs from 'head' to 'tail' (antero posterior).
Cell biology provides the means by which the genotype becomes translated into the phenotype. 1 ,8 Genes control cell behavior by controlling which proteins are made by a cel l What a cell can d o is determined very largely b y the proteins present within it. The hemoglobin in red blood cells enables them to transport oxygen; skeletal muscle cells are able to contract because they contain an arrange ment of the contractile apparatus of myosin, actin, tropomyosin, and other muscle-specific proteins.
It is these interactions that determine how the embIYo develops, and so no developmental process can be attributed to the function of a single gene or single molecule. The amount of information on molecular processes in development is now enormous. We will make no attempt to describe this information in detail. but will concentrate on processes that provide insight into the mechanisms of development and illustrate general principles. 6 Development involves cell division, the emergence of patte rn, change in form, cell differentiat ion, and growth Development is essentially the emergence of organized structures from an initially veIY simple group of cells.
Principles of Development by Lewis Wolpert et al.