By Kathryn M. Rudy
"Medieval manuscripts resisted obsolescence. Made through hugely specialized craftspeople (scribes, illuminators, ebook binders) with labour-intensive tactics utilizing unique and infrequently unique fabrics (parchment made of dozens or thousands of skins, inks and paints made up of prized minerals, animals and plants), books have been dear and equipped to final. and they outlived their proprietors. instead of discard them once they have been outmoded, ebook proprietors stumbled on how you can replace, amend and upcycle books or booklet elements. those actions sped up within the 15th century. so much manuscripts made prior to 1390 have been bespoke and made for a specific patron, yet these made after 1390 (especially books of hours) have been more and more made for an open industry, during which the manufacturer was once no longer in direct touch with the customer. elevated potency resulted in extra wide-spread items, which vendors have been stimulated to personalise. It additionally ended in extra clean parchment within the e-book, for instance, the backs of inserted miniatures and the blanks ends of textual elements. booklet purchasers of the overdue fourteenth and in the course of the 15th century nonetheless held onto the previous connotations of manuscripts—that they have been personalized luxurious items—even while the creation had turn into impersonal. proprietors therefore bought books made for an open industry after which personalized them, filling within the clean areas, or even including extra elements later. this may provide them a cheap product, yet one who nonetheless smacked of luxurious and met their person wishes. They saved older books in flow via amending them, connected goods to normal books to cause them to extra proper and worthwhile, and extra new prayers with escalating indulgences because the tradition of salvation shifted. Rudy considers ways that e-book proprietors adjusted the contents in their books from the best (add a marginal word, stitch in a curtain) to the main advanced (take the booklet aside, enhance the elements with painted ornament, upload extra quires of parchment). via making occasionally severe changes, booklet vendors stored their books stylish and emotionally proper. This research explores the intersection of codicology and human hope. Rudy exhibits how elevated modularisation of e-book making ended in extra standardisation but in addition to extra possibilities for customization. She asks: What houses did parchment manuscripts have that revealed books lacked? What are the interrelationships between expertise, potency, ability loss and standardisation?"--Publisher's website. Read more...
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Extra info for Piety in pieces : how medieval readers customized their manuscripts
These two forces—reading style and economics— meant that books of hours were written and designed differently from psalters. Books of hours (at least in the Netherlands) were made increasingly in smaller segments that could be brought together during binding. 5 Bas Méridionaux,” in Manuscripten en miniaturen: studies aangeboden aan Anne S. Korteweg bij haar afscheid van de Koninklijke Bibliotheek, ed. J. A. A. M. , Bijdragen tot de Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse Boekhandel (Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 2007), pp.
Second, its simplicity must have appealed to the half-trained Masters of the Pink Canopies. Depicting the naked figure of Jesus provided challenges for the artists, but they followed a formula, which made it easier. Otherwise, most of the surface is given to the arma Christi, which comprise simple geometric shapes and posed little challenge even to a maladroit painter. Part of the appeal and popularity of the arma Christi as a devotional aid must have been the ease with which it could be reproduced with little skill.
Modular manuscripts often contain blank folios, because scribes typically started new texts on a fresh recto. In doing so they were anticipating that a (future) owner could insert a full-page miniature to the book on the left side of the opening, so that it would face the initial on the right. The southern Netherlands produced the most extreme cases of wasted parchment. These manuscripts were extremely modularized. D. Precursors of book modules Some of the elements of the modular method were already present in earlier systems of making manuscripts: account books made out of single leaves; thirteenth-century Parisian Bibles copied with the pecia 32 End of the Hours of the Virgin (inscribed in Bruges), and prayer to St.
Piety in pieces : how medieval readers customized their manuscripts by Kathryn M. Rudy