By Frano Barbir
Demand for gasoline telephone know-how is transforming into speedily. gas cells are being commercialized to supply strength to constructions like hospitals and faculties, to exchange batteries in transportable digital units, and as replacements for inner combustion engines in autos. PEM (Proton trade Membrane) gasoline cells are lighter, smaller, and extra effective than different varieties of gasoline mobilephone. consequently, over eighty% of gasoline cells being produced at the present time are PEM cells.
This new version of Dr. Barbir’s groundbreaking booklet nonetheless lays the basis for engineers, technicians and scholars larger than the other source, masking basics of layout, electrochemistry, warmth and mass delivery, in addition to supplying the context of process layout and functions. but it now additionally offers worthwhile details at the most up-to-date advances in modeling, diagnostics, fabrics, and parts, in addition to an up to date bankruptcy at the evolving purposes components in which PEM cells are being deployed.
- Comprehensive advisor covers all facets of PEM gasoline cells, from idea and basics to functional applications
- Provides ideas to warmth and water administration difficulties engineers needs to face while designing and imposing PEM gas cells in systems
- Hundreds of unique illustrations, real-life engineering examples, and end-of-chapter difficulties support make clear, contextualize, and relief understanding
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Additional info for PEM Fuel Cells: Theory and Practice
ARd FEr aOx FEr i0 ¼ nFk0;f COx exp ¼ nFk0;b CRd exp (3-16) RT RT By combining Equations (3-15) and (3-16), we obtain a relationship between the current density and potential: & i À i0 ! ' ÀaRd FðE-Er Þ aOx FðE-Er Þ exp À exp RT RT (3-17) This is known as the Butler–Volmer equation, where Er is the reversible or equilibrium potential. 229 V (at 25 C and atmospheric pressure) and it does vary with temperature and pressure, as shown in Chapter 2. The difference Fuel Cell Electrochemistry 37 between the electrode potential and the reversible potential is called overpotential.
Space program, providing power on the space orbiters. Although this proven technology is of the alkaline type, the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) announced plans to use PEM fuel cells in the future. 16 PEM Fuel Cells • Airplanes. In 2008 Boeing announced that it has, for the ﬁrst time in aviation history, ﬂown a manned airplane powered by hydrogen fuel cells. • Boats. Fuel cells can be used for marine applications and as auxiliary power units (APUs) for pleasure vessels. MTU Friedrichschaffen demonstrated a sailboat on lake Constanze (2004) with four Ballard Nexa fuel cell units.
In addition, both DH and DS are functions of temperature: ZT hT ¼ h298:15 þ cp dT (2-19) 1 cp dT T (2-20) 298:15 ZT ST ¼ S298:15 þ 298:15 Speciﬁc heat of any gas is also a function of temperature (Figure 2-3). An empirical relationship may be used : cp ¼ a þ bT þ cT2 (2-21) where a, b, and c are the empirical coefﬁcients, different for each gas, as shown in Table 2-3. 00 273 473 673 Temperature (K) 873 1073 Figure 2-3 Speciﬁc heat, Cp, as a function of temperature for hydrogen, oxygen, and water vapor.
PEM Fuel Cells: Theory and Practice by Frano Barbir