By Usman Khan
Participation past the poll field is a great addition to the literature on democracy and the position of civil society. It demonstrates that new mechanisms being brought in Western Europe can and do supply the aptitude to noticeably enhance the democratic method.
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Extra info for Participation Beyond the Ballot Box
But along with independence, other forms of control, such as entrusted control, are seen as forms of real citizen control, where citizens are able to determine their own agendas and their own ways of working. The difference between the Burns et al. model and the Arnstein model is partly one of language. The Burns et al. model does show greater sophistication at the higher rungs of the ladder, as well as distinguishing usefully between citizen participation and citizen control. However, criticisms can be made of this approach too.
1. Cambridge MA: MIT Press. Habermas, J. (1988) The Theory of Communicative Action, Vol. 2. Cambridge: Polity Press. Habermas, J. (1990) Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action. Cambridge MA: MIT Press. Habermas, J. (1991) Communication and the Evolution of Society. Cambridge: Polity Press. Habermas, J. (1995) Justification and Application. Cambridge: Polity Press. Habermas, J. (1996) Between Facts and Norms. Cambridge: Polity Press. Hirschman, A. (1970) Exit, Voice and Loyalty. Cambridge MA: Harvard Universtiy Press.
It is neat—one either exits or does not; it is impersonal—any face-to-face confrontation between customers and firm with its imponderable and unpredictable elements is avoided and success and failure of the organisation are communicated by statistics; and it is indirect…. In all these respects voice is the opposite of exit. It is a far more ‘messy’ concept because it can be graduated…; it implies articulation of one’s critical opinions rather than a private, ‘secret’ vote in the anonymity of a supermarket; it is direct and straightforward rather than roundabout.
Participation Beyond the Ballot Box by Usman Khan