By John Kingston, Mary E. Beckman
The most up-tp-date learn in speech technology is gifted during this number of papers. The unifying topic of the gathering is the connection among phonological representations of the grammatical constitution of speech, and actual types of the construction and conception of exact utterances. The authors, together with best experts from the fields of phonology, electric engineering, linguistic phonetics, and psychology, offer a variety of perspectives in this query. There are papers facing the connection among phonology and phonetics because it applies to tone in Hausa, to intonation, tension and phraseology in English and German, to universals of patterning in sonority and syllable constitution, and in consonant position assimilation, to speech synthesis instruments for checking out phonological and phonetic theories, and to 3 varied types of articulatory constitution. An introductory bankruptcy via the editors outlines the purpose of the amount and gives a brief assessment of the papers.
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Extra resources for Papers in Laboratory Phonology: Volume 1, Between the Grammar and Physics of Speech
References Archangeli, D. and D. Pulleyblank. 1986. The content and structure of phonological representations. MS, University of Arizona and University of Southern California. Beckman, M. and J. Pierrehumbert. 1986. Intonational structure in Japanese and English. Phonology Yearbook 3: 255-309. Clements, G. N. 1981. The hierarchical representation of tone features. In G. N. ) Harvard Studies in Phonology vol. 2. Reprinted in I. ). Current Approaches to African Linguistics vol. 1. Dordrecht: Foris, 145-176.
12) Downdrift: L H Primary tier I I o L o tonal nodes Register tier The rules convert a representation like that of Ban sanii ba "I don't know" in (13) into (14). Because our representation is multidimensional, each step of the derivation has been depicted on two planes, one containing the syllables and tonal nodes, and the other containing the tonal nodes and tones. (14) Ban sani ba 1 1 1 ! O 0 0 0 L HL H I I I I O 0 0 0 L L The important result of this account is that as long as we assume that no single tonal node can be linked simultaneously to both a High and Low register tone, we can predict complementarity between High and Low register - and capture the fact that question raising and downdrift cannot co-occur.
Suppose that we stipulate that a phrase boundary is inserted just before the emphasized word and that within the phrase the Obligatory Contour Principle (Leben 1978) causes any string of syllables with the same tone to be linked to a single tonal node dominating that tone. (17) Let us assume further that raising for emphasis employs a register High tone. Then once this High tone attaches to a given primary High, all of the adjacent High-toned syllables will be raised as well, in accordance with our observations.
Papers in Laboratory Phonology: Volume 1, Between the Grammar and Physics of Speech by John Kingston, Mary E. Beckman