By Juan Domínguez-Bendala (auth.)
The objective of Pancreatic Stem Cells is to supply a huge review of an fascinating version of organogenesis (the improvement of the pancreas) from the point of view of stem telephone learn. The tangible prospect of devising potent mobile cures for style I diabetes –a sickness so far thought of incurable– has stoked a common curiosity in harnessing our wisdom at the simple biology in the back of the advance of this organ. this article is conceived as an all-encompassing consultant to discover the numerous elements of "regenerative remedies" for the endocrine pancreas, from grownup and embryonic stem cells to endogenous regeneration and transdifferentiation. a lot of these topics are equipped upon an up to date dialogue on pancreatic ontogeny, which gives a superior history for either easy scientists and healthiness professionals.
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Extra resources for Pancreatic Stem Cells
22 Lateral specification mechanisms leading to endocrine cell differentiation. Pancreatic progenitors at an early stage of development can be considered functionally equivalent. (a) Any cell will both secrete the Notch ligand (delta or serrate, black circles) and receive it from the neighboring cell. Activation of the Notch receptor leads to the upregulation of Hairy Enhancer of Split-1 (HES1), which is a potent repressor of the pro-endocrine gene Ngn3. HES-1 will also block the production of more ligand, but this blockade is leaky.
327 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 48 Pancreatic Regeneration HYPOTHESIS 1 HYPOTHESIS 2 New beta cells arise from self-duplication New beta cells arise from beta cells Pulse Time point 1 Time point 2 Fig. 34 Pulse–chase lineage tracing experiments can be used to test each one of the presented hypotheses. If new beta cells arose from self-duplication (left), the proportion of labeled cells within the islet would remain virtually unchanged throughout the life of the individual.
A) Any cell will both secrete the Notch ligand (delta or serrate, black circles) and receive it from the neighboring cell. Activation of the Notch receptor leads to the upregulation of Hairy Enhancer of Split-1 (HES1), which is a potent repressor of the pro-endocrine gene Ngn3. HES-1 will also block the production of more ligand, but this blockade is leaky. A basal level of ligand is still produced, which maintains the system in an unstable equilibrium. In the presence of active Notch signaling, further differentiation does not occur.
Pancreatic Stem Cells by Juan Domínguez-Bendala (auth.)