By Luis P. Villarreal
From micro organism to people, all existence has how one can realize themselves and differentiate themselves from related lifestyles varieties. the facility to acknowledge similarity will be known as workforce identification or team club and likewise pertains to team cooperation. Even viruses have the potential for team id and cooperation. despite the fact that, these viruses that stably colonize micro organism can without delay impact the crowd identification in their host. beginning with this virus-host courting, this e-book strains the starting place and evolution of crew id. by way of studying the solid, extrachromosomal viruses of micro organism, a method has been outlined that's used for either virus endurance and staff id; this can be the habit module of phage P1. hence, this ebook examines how genetic parasites and dependancy modules were eager about the foundation of toxins/antitoxins modules as platforms of staff identification and immunity. The foundation of sensory structures for mild and small molecule (pheromone) detection and creation, social motility, and programmed phone loss of life are all tested. From the emergence of worms with brains, to vertebrate fish, to bugs and tetrapods, olfaction and pheromones have been maintained for workforce id reasons and associated with addictive social bonding. within the African primates and people, despite the fact that, an excellent colonization through genetic parasites normally destroyed this pheromone established process of social id. This forced primates to conform enlarged social brains that used imaginative and prescient to profit staff identification. people also developed an excellent better social mind and in addition built a brain in a position to realized language and ideology to specify staff identity.
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Extra info for Origin of Group Identity: Viruses, Addiction and Cooperation
Thus, internal competition is not the primary force for social stability. Chapter 9 presents the human-specific developments regarding group identity. Here, we are especially interested to consider the developments that led to the much larger social brain of humans and how social behavior is selected and generated. Genetic colonization has continued to be a main creative and disruptive force in the evolution of the human genome, as human-specific HERV K and LINE acquisitions are clear. The human and chimpanzee genome differ by 68,000 indels (insertions and deletions), which are mostly the product of alu, LINE and LTR parasitic element activity.
In addition, coincidence detectors and temporal detection are seen which introduce the importance of timing for light-based group detection, especially regarding sexual reproduction in which light and taxis are frequently linked. Swarms of individual organisms often move, differentiate and sexually reproduce in response to light. , dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria) were also notable for the diversity of toxins they produce, suggesting links between light and toxinbased group identity. Chapter-Specific Issues 15 In Chapter 4, I extend the analysis of sensory-driven motility as a basis of group behavior that was presented above in oceanic microorganisms.
In goldfish, for example, avoidance learning can be taught and appears to consist of emotional learning and special learning. This learned fear response is also socially contagious which can also be mediated by pheromones. The speed by which fish recognize visual and odor patterns and respond emotionally indicate that it is likely an early evolved state, but one that is ‘subconscious’ and does not involve a frontal cortex. The CNS of fish does use endorphins and opioids regarding their behavior, but in ways that are not well understood.
Origin of Group Identity: Viruses, Addiction and Cooperation by Luis P. Villarreal