By Paul Dukes
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Then in the summer of 1670, he led a band of Cossacks and an ever-increasing number of peasants against Rus, that is Moscow, and not so much against the tsar as evil advisers. Initial success was followed by failure and retreat after an unhappy experience at the hands of a formidable detachment of the regular army. Razin's attempt to revive the enthusiasm of his surviving followers and to gain new support from among the Cossacks did not succeed, and he was taken by the Cossacks loyal to the government and handed over to it, then executed in Moscow in the summer of 1671.
1 Thus, towards the end of the seventeenth century, the Romanov dynasty and its adherents were succeeding in maintaining and extending their grasp over the nascent empire after the conquest of a series of internal enemies and at least an adequate performance against foes from without. The administration was expanding to new demands and adjusting to them, and society was taking on a new and firmer shape, with the nobility coalescing at the top and the serfs becoming more subject to its control at the bottom.
This has been incompletely explored, in both Soviet and Western historiography. There is some substance in John T. Alexander's charge against his Soviet colleagues in this direction, but nor is Alexander's own article on this subject in any way comprehensive. However it is generally agreed that the conclusion of the peace of Kuchuk-Kainardzhi in July 1774 made an enormous difference to the outcome of the internal war. And European powers certainly watched Pugachev's progress as closely as possible, conscious that Russia's embarrassment could be to their advantage.
October and the World: Perspectives on the Russian Revolution by Paul Dukes