By Eric Carlton
During this exploration of the character of profession, Eric Carlton concentrates at the advanced dating among army authority and civilian inhabitants and explores the equipment utilized by dominant powers ot hold their authority. Drawing from a variety of case experiences, together with examinations of British colonial pursuits in India and the Nazi atrocities of the second one international battle, Dr Carlton assesses the character of social keep an eye on and the impact of ideology at the workout of strength, and considers the ethical elements of army repression.
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Extra info for Occupation: The Policies and Practices of Military Conquerors
The land was held in common with no transferable individual titles of ownership. In the south, the dues were usually collected directly from the village headman, whereas in the largely Muslim north, the taxes were collected by tax farmers and recognized hereditary officials (zamindars) —a system which lent itself to all kinds of abuse. Under British rule these revenues had to be increased in order to pay for the army and the costs of administration. This amounted to an average of 56 per cent of the total revenue between the critical years 1913 and 1932, after which administration costs—but not defence costs— gradually reduced.
The Sikhs of the Punjab did not rebel, and the areas most closely supervised by the British, especially Bengal, did not give the mutiny much support. It was mainly confined to the northern provinces, and—by and large—was not aided by the independent princedoms. Furthermore, it needs to be stressed that in some areas events generated internal upheavals, caste turned on caste, and some people took it as an opportunity to settle old scores. Indeed, there is good evidence that, in part at least, the impetus behind the revolt was not so much resurgent nationalism as political ambition.
It is probably true to say that Gandhi was much more of a social reformer than a political agitator and for this he has been severely criticized by Indian radicals. His greatest lasting influence has been in his teaching on non-violence and peaceful self-sufficiency. His impatience with modernization has gone largely unheeded and his last venture into politics—that of resistance to partition—ultimately led to his assassination in 1948. Partition in India in 1947 has to be regarded as something of a mixed blessing.
Occupation: The Policies and Practices of Military Conquerors by Eric Carlton