By Hassan K. Khalil
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This view is referred to as “cultural evolution”. 34 1 Introduction Fig. 14 Conceptual illustration of business cycles. A business cycle consists of four phases: construction, development, saturation, and destruction. 6 What is Collective Behaviour? According to “The Theory of Economic Development” by Schumpeter , our modern capitalistic society creates business cycles, or boom-and-bust cycles. A cycle consists of expansion occurring at the same time in many economic activities. Business cycles may vary from more than one year to 10 or 12 years.
4 Concept 31 The PDF p(x t | yt ) on the left hand side describes a conditional probability distribution of the state variables under the observations yt . 8) and the dynamics f is linear ( f (x t , t) = H t x t ), then we can estimate the state variables x t by using x t,est = x t,b + V H tT (H t V H tT + R)−1 ( yt − H t x t,b ). This is referred to as optimal interpolation (OI) [44, 45]. The third method is a KF algorithm . The KF equations describe the time evolution of both the mean and the covariance.
Specifically, researchers in the fields of sociology, economics, informatics, and physics are focusing on these frontiers and have launched data-driven investigation for our society in order to understand the complexity of socioeconomic-technological systems. This is an inductive approach from facts to wisdom. However, since our society which is the sum total of both internal and external states of individuals, is several orders of magnitude more complicated than each individual, it appears to be difficult to image how we can manage to capture the real totality of the state of society from the cooperation of many agencies.
Nonlinear Systems 1st ed by Hassan K. Khalil