By Milka Levy-Rubin
The Muslim conquest of the East within the 7th century entailed the subjugation of Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians, and others. even supposing a lot has been written concerning the prestige of non-Muslims within the Islamic empire, no earlier works have tested how the principles employing to minorities have been formulated. Milka Levy-Rubin's impressive publication lines the emergence of those rules from the 1st hand over agreements within the speedy aftermath of conquest to the formation of the canonic rfile known as the Pact of 'Umar, which was once formalized below the early 'Abbasids, within the first half the 9th century. What the learn unearths is that the conquered peoples themselves performed a huge position within the production of those guidelines, and that those have been in line with long-standing traditions, customs, and associations from previous pre-Islamic cultures that originated within the worlds of either the conquerors and the conquered. In its connections to Roman, Byzantine, and Sasanian traditions, the booklet will entice historians of Europe in addition to Arabia and Persia.
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126 Another relevant case is that of the walled city of Pirisabora described later on Julian’s journey. During the siege laid on this city there was fierce fighting for some time until the breaking-point when Julian decided to build a special war-machine: To this huge mass, which would rise above the battlements of the lofty towers, the defenders turned an attentive eye, and at the same time considering the resolution of the besiegers, they suddenly fell to their prayers, and standing on the towers and battlements, and with outstretched hands imploring the protection of the Romans, they craved pardon and life (fidem Romanam pansis manibus protestantes vitam cum venia postulabant).
The Nubians, who chose to use the common and well-known Greek term, and, as I will attempt to show, also contributed their perception of a surrender agreement which originated in their case in the Graeco-Roman culture embedded in Egypt. The concept of the baqt was so strong that it survived for centuries, long after its original meaning was forgotten. 165 This special usage may also originate in the term to ‘cut a covenant’ in Greek (horkia pista temnein),166 Hebrew karat brit. The terminology used in the Syriac text regarding the events of the Arab conquest in the Chronicon ad 1234167 reflects the common usages noted until now.
Following the negotiations, and before the terms of the treaty were put down in writing, ‘it was agreed that both rulers should provide the documents which are called sacrae litterae in Latin, and which confirmed everything that had been established by the ambassadors’. He notes that following The Roots and Authenticity of the Surrender Agreements 15 a full description of the terms these sacrae litterae were exchanged. He then provides a rare description of the process of the writing down of the treaty and its signing: When these and other issues had been argued out, the fifty year treaty was written out in Persian and Greek, and the Greek copy was translated into Persian, and the Persian into Greek.
Non-Muslims in the Early Islamic Empire: From Surrender to Coexistence by Milka Levy-Rubin