Read e-book online NMR in Physiology and Biomedicine PDF

By Robert J. Gillies

ISBN-10: 0122839803

ISBN-13: 9780122839801

This e-book presents a complete assessment of contemporary nuclear magnetic resonance methods to biomedical difficulties in vivo utilizing cutting-edge ideas. It devotes equivalent cognizance to the equipment and functions of NMR and addresses the potential for all the suggestions mentioned. the amount contains late-breaking parts akin to sensible imaging, stream imaging, bioreactor spectroscopy, and chemical shift imaging. All chapters are written in a ''current concepts'' variety that renders info obtainable to readers in any respect degrees. individuals are identified specialists within the box, lending the e-book a world standpoint

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As a result the Fourier-transformed signal is the convo­ lution of a rectangle with a δ function, which is a "sine" shape. This means that the amplitude of the signal from the sphere in the spatial domain is given by s'm{x)/x, where χ is the distance from the center of the pixel. Thus the signal from the sphere is distributed over an area which is larger than the projection of the sphere along the phase-encoding gradient (Fig. 5C). Although most of the signal appears in the pixel which actually contains the sphere, significant intensity appears in other pixels.

In theory, Ca(t) must be mea­ sured with a time resolution which is short compared to T, but it is difficult to sample arterial blood repeatedly, particularly if small animals are used. , after perturbation) using an approximation of the arterial in­ put function (Mattielo and Eveolhoch, 1991). Due to the low strength of the deuterium signal and the small amount of D2O which can be injected, the signal-to-noise ratio of deuterium washout experiments is not high. To offset this deficiency signals can be ac­ quired from the entire volume of the tissue of interest.

Nevertheless there are several potential sources of hazard which need to be examined. These may be conveniently considered under four headings: (A) Magnetic fields, (B) rapidly changing magnetic fields, (C) radiofrequency fields, and (D) mis­ cellaneous. Further details on M R imaging safety and patient management may be found in Shellock and Kanal (1991). Magnetic fields. There are no clearly documented ill-effects of magnetic fields on human beings. Several million patients have been imaged without adverse ef­ fect in fields up to 2 T, which is the guideline maximum set by the FDA.

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NMR in Physiology and Biomedicine by Robert J. Gillies

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