By Reuven Amitai-Preiss
For sixty years, from 1260 to 1323, the Mamluk country in Egypt and Syria was once at struggle with the Ilkhanid Mongols established in Persia. this can be the 1st finished examine of the political and armed forces points of the early years of the battle, from the conflict of 'Ayn Jalut in 1260 to the conflict of Homs in 1281. In among those campaigns, the Mamluk-Ilkhanid fight was once endured within the demeanour of a 'cold battle' with each side taken with border skirmishes, diplomatic manoeuvres, and espionage. the following, as within the significant battles, the Mamluks often maintained the higher hand, setting up themselves because the most effective Muslim energy on the time. by means of drawing on formerly untapped Persian and Arabic assets, the writer sheds new mild at the disagreement, interpreting the warfare in the context of Mongol/Mamluk family members with the Byzantine Empire, the Latin West and the Crusading states.
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Extra resources for Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Īlkhānid War, 1260-1281
150b-151a, 154a-b; Ibn al- c AmId, 172, 174-5; A b u Shama, 205; Zubda, fol. 37b; Kutubl, 20:223; Ibn al-Furat, MS. Vatican, fols. 233a, 237a-238a; MaqrizI, 1:423,427; Humphreys, Saladin, 3 5 2 - 3 , 3 5 6 - 7 ; Thorau, Baybars, 68-9. The sources are not in complete agreement about al-Zahir's adventures and the exact circumstances of al-Nasir's capture. On Birkat al-Zayza"s location, see: Ibn Wasil, MS. 1703, fol. 144b; D . Krawulsky, Iran - Das Reich der llhane (Wiesbaden, 1978), 596. The exact location of Marj Barghuth is not clear; see Maqrizl, 1:585 n.
Ibn al-Furat, MS. Vatican, fols. 2 2 0 b - 2 2 l a . Yunlnl, 2:127; 3:243, plus the sources cited in ch. 2, nn. 59-60. On the struggle between the "defeatists" and "militants" among the Syrian amirs and officials, see Ayalon, "Aspects," 27-8. Rashid al-Dln, ed. c Alizadah, 3:62-3. , Beirut, 1977), 13:203, writes that Hiilegii left Baghdad in Jumada I 656/May-June 1258. On this scholar, see: R. Strothmann, "al-Jusi," EI\ 4:980-1. Rashid al-Dln, ed. c AlIzadah, 3:63. S. JaneU, History of the Caliphs, (Calcutta, 1881), 499.
90 They also brought another letter from Hulegu. Again it is recounted that the Caliph was killed for his falsehoods. When al-Nasir received this letter, he was to come with his soldiers and his wealth in order to submit to the "sultan of the world, supreme king of the face of the earth" (sultan al-ard shahinshah-i ruy-i zarriiri). Al-Nasir was not to delay his envoys as previously. The letter states that there is nowhere to hide from the Mongols. Like the previous letter, this one is accompanied by citations from the Qur'an and Arabic poetry.
Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Īlkhānid War, 1260-1281 by Reuven Amitai-Preiss