By Matthew Soberg Shugart, Visit Amazon's Martin P. Wattenberg Page, search results, Learn about Author Central, Martin P. Wattenberg,
This e-book evaluates why mixed-member structures have lately appealed to many nations with different electoral histories, and the way good expectancies for those structures were met. each one significant state that has followed a combined procedure is given chapters, one on origins and one on results. The international locations tested are Germany, New Zealand, Italy, Israel, Japan, Venezuela, Bolivia, Mexico, Hungary, and Russia. furthermore, there are chapters at the clients for a mixed-member approach being followed in Britain and Canada.
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Additional resources for Mixed-Member Electoral Systems: The Best of Both Worlds? (Comparative Politics)
17The Mexican provision is that no party may obtain a seat share more than eight percentage points greater than its vote share. Up to this limit seats are allocated in parallel, and the fact that a party with as little as 42% of the votes is likely to win a majority of seats18means Mexico's system must be considered MMM, albeit in a limited form. In the upper-right cell, we ﬁnd systems that have parallel seat allocations but incorporate a mechanism of vote linkage. We consider these cases to remain in the broad category of MMM, because once again, even if a party is overrepresented in the nominal tier relative to its vote share, it is still likely to receive a signiﬁcant share of the list-tier seats.
Turning to other variables in mixed-member systems, one very important one is the percentage of seats set aside in the list tier. In the case of MMP systems, the seats set aside for compensatory allocation must be a sufﬁcient percentage of the total for a high degree of proportionality to be achieved. Taagepera and Shugart (1989: 131) note that full compensation is achieved if DEFINITION AND TYPOLOGY 19 the percentage of seats set aside for this purpose is at least the same percentage as the deviation from proportionality resulting from the lower-tier allocation.
23The overall degree of proportionality is more likely to be affected by nominal-tier variables in MMM systems than in MMP ones. Thus, the use of the two-round majority formula in MMM systems such as in Georgia and Lithuania implies a greater disproportionality than does the use of plurality for the nominal tier in Japan. Among MMP systems, only Albania in 1992 has used a two-round system rather than plurality. The Jenkins Commission in Britain proposed the use of alternative vote (AV) in the nominal tier.
Mixed-Member Electoral Systems: The Best of Both Worlds? (Comparative Politics) by Matthew Soberg Shugart, Visit Amazon's Martin P. Wattenberg Page, search results, Learn about Author Central, Martin P. Wattenberg,