By R.E. Vears (Auth.)
It is a basic textbook on microprocessor dependent approach layout that caters for complicated stories at HNC/HND point. The ebook concentrates at the improvement of 8-bit microcontrollers built round the flexible Z80 microprocessor that's familiar in faculties and is appropriate for many business purposes. the reason of structures and procedures is additionally mostly appropriate to different forms of microprocessors. A uncomplicated wisdom of microprocessor ideas and computer code programming is believed. Ron Vears is additionally writer of ''Checkbooks on Microelectronic Systems''
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Additional info for Microprocessor Based Systems for the Higher Technician
Expressions are formed by combining a number of simple operands (labels and constants) using arithmetic and logic operators. These are evaluated during assembly, and each expression must produce a 16 bit value. e. the eight most significant digits must evaluate to zero if the operand is data destined for an eight bit register. 50 Microprocessor based systems Numeric constants A numeric constant is a 16 bit value which may be expressed in one of several different bases. The base or radix is denoted by a following radix indicator, and those used are: B D H O Q binary constant decimal constant hexadecimal constant octal constant octal constant (base (base (base (base (base 2) 10) 16) 8) 8) Q may be used as an octal radix to avoid confusion between figure zero and the letter 'Ο'.
The form of the DEFM directive is as follows: label: DEFM 'text message' where the text message may be any sequence of characters, usually with some limit imposed regarding its length. g. for the stack, or for system workspace, and takes the following form: label: DEFS expression Some assemblers allow the DEFS directive to be followed by a constant which then causes the assembler to generate code to fill the reserved space with the selected constant. The assembler continues to create subsequent code at the first address after the area reserved by the DEFS statement.
Assembler directives Assembler directives (or pseudo-ops) are instructions to an assembler and are used to set labels to specified values during assembly, specify starting addresses in the program, define storage areas, perform conditional as sembly or control the format of the print file. Different assemblers support various directives, but the following are typical: ORG END EQU IF ELSE ENDIF DEFB DEFW DEFM DEFS INCLUDE set the program or data origin end program numeric 'equate' begin conditional assembly alternative to the previous IF end of conditional assembly define data bytes define data words define text message define space (for data storage) read data from file specified ORG directive An ORG directive is used to define the origin or starting address for a program or data area, and it takes the form: label: ORG expression Assemblers 53 where 'label' is an optional program identifier, and 'expression' is a 16 bit expression consisting of operands that must be defined before the ORG statement.
Microprocessor Based Systems for the Higher Technician by R.E. Vears (Auth.)