By Carlo Nicola De Cecco, Marco Rengo (auth.)
The objective of the instruction manual is to supply a pragmatic advisor for citizens and common radiologists, equipped alphabetically, basically in line with affliction or . The instruction manual could be designed as a quick e-book with a few illustrations and schemes and should disguise themes on cardiac MDCT and MRI. Entries commonly contain a brief description of pathological and medical features, counsel on collection of the main applicable imaging process, a schematic overview of capability diagnostic clues, and invaluable counsel and tips.
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First-degree block: PR interval >200 ms. • Second-degree block: (1) Mobitz 1, PR interval prolong until a P wave is notconducted; (1) Mobitz 2, fixed P to QRS (2:1, 3:1 or 4:1). • Third-degree block: no conduction, dissociation between P and QRS complex. Atrium, Left • Atrial dimensions should be indexed by BSA. • Age and gender have no significant influence on atrial dimensions. Table 5 Left atrium values Left atrium values Diameter (mm) Major Axis (mm) Area (cm2) Normal 28–40 41–61 <20 Mild dilated 41–46 62–67 20–30 Moderately dilated 47–52 68–76 30–40 Severely dilated >52 >77 >40 20 A Atypical Chest Pain • Chest pain in the absence of typical characteristic of myocardial ischemia.
Conversion Factors, Radiation Dose 33 • Rare disease with normal survival rate. • Major long-term problem is atrioventricular valve regurgitation associated with systemic right ventricular failure. Constrictive Pericarditis • Causes: tuberculosis, mediastinal irradiation, surgery, trauma, and purulent pericarditis. • Characteristics: (1) small-volume pulse; (2) pulsus paradoxus; (3) atrial fibrillation; (4) pleural effusion; (5) cardiac catheterization—elevation and equalization of filling pressure (RV and LV pressure difference ≤6 mmHg).
The most available dose index, directly viewable on the monitor of all the modern equipment during a CT examination and provides an immediate check of the dose delivered to the patient. Culprit Plaque • Acute coronary events, such as unstable angina, myocardial infarction, or sudden cardiac death, are usually caused by erosion or rupture of a coronary atherosclerotic plaque. • In the majority of cases, the “culprit lesion” does not reduce the lumen of the coronary artery to a significant extent before the acute coronary event.
MDCT and MRI of the Heart by Carlo Nicola De Cecco, Marco Rengo (auth.)