By Kenneth S. Kosik, Thales Papagiannakopoulos (auth.), Bart De Strooper, Yves Christen (eds.)
The discovery of microRNAs has printed an unforeseen and excellent extra point of good tuning of the genome and the way genes are used many times in numerous combos to generate the complexity that underlies for example the mind. because the preliminary stories played in C.elegans, now we have long past a miles approach to start to know the way microRNA pathways may have an influence on wellbeing and fitness and illness in human. even if microRNAs are abundantly expressed within the mind, quite little is understood in regards to the a number of capabilities of those RNA molecules within the fearful approach. however, we all know already that microRNA pathways play significant roles within the proliferation, differentiation, functionality and upkeep of neuronal cells. numerous fascinating experiences have associated microRNAs as significant regulators of the neuronal phenotype, and feature implicated particular microRNAs within the legislation of synapse formation and plasticity. disorder of microRNA pathways can be slowly rising as a possible vital contributor to the pathogenesis of significant neurodegenerative issues akin to Alzheimer’s affliction and Parkinson’s sickness. those novel insights seem to be specific promising for the knowledge of the very widespread and badly understood sporadic sorts of those ailments compared to the genetic varieties. therefore, the higher figuring out of the consequences of this novel box of molecular biology is important for the huge region of neurosciences, from the elemental facets to the health center, and from novel diagnostic to almost certainly healing functions for serious neurological and perhaps psychiatric ailments.
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The invention of microRNAs has printed an unforeseen and remarkable extra point of good tuning of the genome and the way genes are used time and again in numerous mixtures to generate the complexity that underlies for example the mind. because the preliminary reports played in C. elegans, we now have long gone a much option to start to know the way microRNA pathways may have an influence on well-being and sickness in human.
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Additional resources for Macro Roles for MicroRNAs in the Life and Death of Neurons
These models were validated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) on cDNA preparations, demonstrating a dramatic reduction in mDN marker expression. Expression analyses were performed by qPCR for a panel of approximately 224 miRNAs precursors in midbrain, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex samples from PD patients and normal controls. Within this miRNA panel, eight appeared to be specifically expressed in midbrain relative to cerebral cortex or cerebellum. Expression of one of these miRNA, mir-133b, was specifically deficient in the context of PD patient samples, as confirmed by Northern blotting for mir-133b.
The resulting increase in membrane-associated Ga13 results in hyperactivation of the RhoA signaling pathway, actomyosin contraction and spine shrinkage. How miR138 function is modulated by synaptic activity is presently unclear resulted in impaired dendritic spine morphogenesis. Notably, miR-138 was identified as a very potent inhibitor of dendritic spine size in cultured hippocampal neurons. miR-132, on the other hand, displayed a spine growth-promoting effect, in agreement with a previous study from the Goodman lab that investigated the role of miR-132 in dendritic outgrowth (Wayman et al.
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Macro Roles for MicroRNAs in the Life and Death of Neurons by Kenneth S. Kosik, Thales Papagiannakopoulos (auth.), Bart De Strooper, Yves Christen (eds.)