By William Stanley Jevons
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Coming, lastly, to a particular negative proposition, say "some violets are not odorous," we know that the subject is undistributed, but we may easily discover that the predic/ite is distributed. Unless the some violets, of which we are speaking, were quite shut out of the class of odorous things, it would be untrue that they were inodorous. Hence we really mean that "some violets are not any odorous things," so that the predicate "odorous things" is taken universally. 61. When we try to show the meaning of particular propositions by using circles, it is difficult to avoid mistakes; but we often make mistakes of the same kind in thinking and talking, and it is well to be aware of the fact.
Hypothetical propositions do not positively assert the predicate of ~e subject, except under certain circumstances. Thus, ,. if water be boiling, it will scald" is a hypothetical proposition asserting, not that all water will be found among scalding things, but that, when it is boiling,. it will scald. "If gunpowder be damp, it will not explode ;" this is a negative hypothetical proposition; for it asserts that gunpowder, when it happens to be damp, will not be found among exploding· things. Hypothetical propositions may generally be recognised by containing the little word" jf; "but it is doubtful whether they really differ much from the ordinary propositions already considered.
Not-liquid. I Gas. I I Not-gas. We must understand, in reading the above, that liquid things are both not viscid and not solid, and that gas is not liquid, not viscid, and not solid. ] CLASSIFICATION. 35 under one division and only one. If we can find any substance, such as india-ntbber or jelly, which does not correspond to any of the descriptions of solid, viscid, liquid, or gas, there still remains a division provided for it. namely, that of not solid, not viscid, not liquid, not gas. This manner of classifying things may seem to be inconvenient, but it is in reality the only tntly logical way.
Logic by William Stanley Jevons