By Francesco Iachello

ISBN-10: 3540362363

ISBN-13: 9783540362364

ISBN-10: 3540362398

ISBN-13: 9783540362395

This ebook, designed for complex graduate scholars and post-graduate researchers, introduces Lie algebras and a few in their purposes to the spectroscopy of molecules, atoms, nuclei and hadrons. The e-book includes many examples that aid to clarify the summary algebraic definitions. It presents a precis of many formulation of useful curiosity, similar to the eigenvalues of Casimir operators and the scale of the representations of all classical Lie algebras.

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**Additional info for Lie Algebras and Applications (Lecture Notes in Physics)**

**Example text**

A crucial problem of representation theory is to ﬁnd the irreducible representations of an algebra g contained in a given representation of g (often called the branching problem). 8 Canonical Chains The branching problem was solved completely by Gel’fand and Cetlin in a series of articles in the 1950’s, for a particular chain of algebras, called the canonical chain of unitary and orthogonal algebras. M. L. Cetlin, Finite-Dimensional Representations of a Group of Unimodular Matrices, Dokl. Akad.

35) and are often called triangular inequalities. Example 8. 37) λ1,1 In the applications discussed in Chap. 7, one needs the branching of the totally symmetric representation [N ] of u(4) with ket | N1 ; N2 ; N3 ; N4 and pattern N4 0 0 0 N3 0 0 . 38) 0 N2 N1 Use of Gel’fand inequalities gives N3 = N4 , N4 − 1, . . , 0; N2 = N3 , N3 − 1, . . , 0; N1 = N2 , N2 − 1, . . , 0. 2 Orthogonal Algebras The canonical chain is so(n) ⊃ so(n − 1) ⊃ so(n − 2) ⊃ . . ⊃ so(2) . 39) For n = 2k + 2 = even, the Gel’fand pattern is µ1,2k+1 µ2,2k+1 ...

Consider the root diagram of B2 The roots are (1, 0) (1, 1) (0, 1) (−1, 1) (−1, 0) (−1, −1) (0, −1) (1, −1). The positive roots are (1, 0) (1, 1) (0, 1) (1, −1), with sum α(+) = (3, 1). We next introduce the notion of simple roots. H-1,1L H0,1L H-1,0L H-1,-1L H1,1L H1,0L H0,-1L H1,-1L Fig. 6. Root diagram of the algebra B2 with roots explictly displayed 20 2 Semisimple Lie Algebras Deﬁnition 2. A simple root is a positive root which cannot be decomposed into the sum of positive roots. In the case of B2 (Fig.

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