By David Gilmour
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Additional resources for Lebanon: The Fractured Country
Furthermore, several of the leading Arab nationalists, two of them former prime ministers, were defeated. ~ing which contributed to the defeats of Saeb Salam in Beirut and Kamal Jumblatt, the socialist leader, in the Chouf. Chamoun followed up his victory by making it clear that he intended to alter the constitution in order to allow himself a second term as president. Coming after the Eisenhower Doctrine and the elections, this was too much for his opponents and there was an uprising against the government.
He could count on elderly relatives to find him a job, probably in a family firm or business. If he was rich, he would take it upon himself to provide for poorer relations, and would even invite them to live with him. When the Palestinians were expelled from their country in 1948, the lucky ones were able to go and live with their Lebanese relatives. The family's welfare role was of immense importance, especially as the state's welfare system was so inadequate. If somewhere in the family there happened to be a doctor or a lawyer, this would open up services to many people who otherwise might be unable Modern Lebanon 15 to afford them.
They practise a secret faith and only their men can be initiated into it. Among other things they believe in predestination, reincarnation and the divinity of the Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim (996-1021 AD). Although they read the Koran and believe that Muhammad was the prophet of God, they do not pray in Il'l;osques and have no public places of worship. Nor do they observe the fast of Ramadan or go on the pilgrimage to Mecca. They were for a long time the dominant sect of Mount Lebanon but now form a fairly small community based on the mountainous area south of the Beirut-Damascus road.
Lebanon: The Fractured Country by David Gilmour