By H. E. J. Cowdrey
Lanfranc of Pavia was once Archbishop of Canterbury from 1070 to 1089, 19 severe years within the historical past of the Anglo-Norman church and state after the Norman conquest of 1066. This learn reconsiders his occupation and achievements and goals to deliver him out from the shadow of his successor, St Anselm
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Canons –: Bessin, Concilia, –. Bessin, Concilia, . . 11 See esp. Rouen (): Orderic Vitalis, , vol. –; Lillebonne (), ibid. , vol. –. 010 13/9/02 4:12 PM Page 31 Service Outside the Cloister and social order was attempted with increasing strenuousness. 13 Third, the extent to which the Norman church and duchy were in touch with the reform papacy calls for a balanced assessment. The prestige with which the reform popes were invested should not be underestimated. William of Poitiers spoke warmly of Alexander II, in particular, in the course of his eulogy of William the Conqueror.
27 ‘Cuius gratiae nimiam quae una die irruit repente obnubilationem, insperato Deus confestim laetificavit sereno . ’ 29 VL cap. , p. ; the Vita appends its explanation to an almost verbatim citation of VH: –. 30 31 ‘Huius tam improvide iussionis causam fuisse aiunt . ’ See below, pp. –. 010 13/9/02 4:12 PM Page 34 Service Outside the Cloister Issues other than the duke’s marriage may have aroused Duke William’s wrath. 32 Guy was a grandson of Duke Richard II and thus William’s close kinsman.
Gibson, Lanfranc, . 55 Lanfranc, Letters, no. , pp. –; they no doubt include any who came in pursuance of Pope Nicholas II’s letter to Lanfranc: Southern, Saint Anselm, –. 56 The evidence has been much discussed. For the case that Alexander is unlikely to have been Lanfranc’s pupil, see esp. , –; the contrary case is presented by Vaughn, Anselm of Bec, –. 010 13/9/02 4:04 PM Page 23 Monk and Abbot According to the Canterbury monk Eadmer, Alexander surprised his entourage by rising to greet Lanfranc.
Lanfranc: Scholar, Monk and Archbishop by H. E. J. Cowdrey