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By OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Develop

ISBN-10: 9282102122

ISBN-13: 9789282102121

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Extra resources for ITF Round Tables The Cost and Effectiveness of Policies to Reduce Vehicle Emissions

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The 2007 MIT study also examines a 2030 diesel vehicle, but does not compare it to a 2005 diesel. However, the 2030 diesel attains an emission rate of 111 gCO2/km (Kromer and Heywood, 2007), which represents about a 55% increase in fuel economy over a 2005 diesel with the same characteristics (other than the engine) as the 2005 baseline gasoline vehicle7. 3. Adding it up, for the US light-duty fleet The availability of NAS-style calculations of “cost effective” fuel economy targets and visions of future “top runner” or “leading edge” vehicles will not add up to a certain view of a “correct” fuel economy target, but they are valuable in informing a decision about targets.

On the other hand, fleet targets might be more ambitious if auto-makers could promote smaller cars by emphasizing safety and comfort in their design. Similarly, growth in sales of four-wheel and all-wheel drive – which have significant weight and fuel economy penalties – might conceivably slow and even reverse as the perceived safety and traction advantages of these systems shrink with universal penetration of electronic stability control and traction control – which do not carry an efficiency penalty.

In the near future, a variety of new hybrid systems, from simple stop-start mechanisms to the General Motors/Allison two-mode full hybrid system, will be introduced to the fleet. However, the more efficient systems currently can pay for themselves with fuel savings only if gasoline prices remain high and only for high mileage drivers who spend much of their time in urban stop-and-go driving, where hybrids maximize their efficiency advantage over conventional vehicles. The key to making them into a dominant technology is to shift to lithium ion or other energy storage technologies that may be less expensive than current nickel-metal hydride batteries (which have limited cost-reduction potential because of high nickel prices), as well as driving down the cost of their expensive electronic controls.

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ITF Round Tables The Cost and Effectiveness of Policies to Reduce Vehicle Emissions by OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Develop


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