Read e-book online Iraq (Middle East: Region in Transition) PDF

By Laura S Etheredge

ISBN-10: 1615304029

ISBN-13: 9781615304028

Commemorated because the cradle of civilization because the days of old Mesopotamia, Iraq served as an highbrow and cultural heart within the Arab international for far of its heritage. Unwilling to permit the turbulence of the 20 th and twenty first centuries eclipse their wealthy tradition and society, the Iraqi humans pastime to safe a hopeful, wealthy destiny for his or her state. This considerate quantity chronicles the main occasions in Iraqi heritage and the traditions, customs, and concepts that experience formed its trajectory because the Arab conquests.

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According to official statistics in the early 1990s, more than one-fifth of the country’s population lived in the governorate of Baghdad, almost all of them in the city itself. In reality, the figures were probably closer to one-third. 24 7 People 7 It is no coincidence that Baghdad’s celebrated predecessors, Babylon and the Sāsānian capital, Ctesiphon, were located in the same general region. Baghdad, itself a city of legend, is located at the heart of what has long been a rich agricultural region, and the modern city is the undisputed commercial, manufacturing, and service capital of Iraq.

Conditions did not improve under the ‘Abbāsids, who took over the caliphate in 750. The uprisings continued: the Zot·t·, an Indian people, rose up in 820–835; the Zanj, African blacks brought into Mesopotamia for agricultural slave labour, rebelled about 869–883. The Qarmatians, an extremist Muslim sect, invaded and devastated Al-Bas·rah in 923, and thereafter the city declined, overshadowed by the prominence of the ‘Abbāsid capital, Baghdad. By the 14th century, neglect and the Mongol invasions left little of the original Al-Bas·rah standing, and by the turn of the 16th century it was relocated at the site of ancient Al-Ubullah, a few miles upstream.

From 1990 on a UN embargo on Iraq, which made travel to and from the country difficult, contributed considerably to the lack of information, but most important was the rule of more than 30 years by the Ba‘thist regime, which was intent on controlling the flow of information about the country. The former Iraqi government sought to downplay unflattering demographic shifts in its Kurdish and Shī‘ite communities while highlighting the effects of the UN embargo 28 7 People 7 on health, nutrition, and overall mortality—particularly among the country’s children.

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Iraq (Middle East: Region in Transition) by Laura S Etheredge

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