By Mangol Bayat
So that it will comprehend Iran's spiritual revolution of 1978-1979, you will need to glance heavily at an prior revolution within the kingdom, the constitutional revolution of 1905-1909. This revolution, which ended in the institution of Iran's first parliamentary democracy, was once a seminal occasion within the country's heritage. the main thorough and finished heritage of the revolution to this point, Bayat's ebook examines the uneasy alliance of clerical, bureaucratic, landowning, and mercantile parts that gained the help of the hundreds for a extra democratic executive, particularly the clerical dissidents that gave the revolution an air of secrecy of spiritual legitimacy. Bayat argues that the hot non secular revival in Iran is way much less staggering while one sees how constitutionalists at the start of the century needed to sofa their demands reform within the language of the Koran, claiming that political reforms constituted a go back to Islam.
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Extra info for Iran's First Revolution: Shi'ism and the Constitutional Revolution of 1905-1909 (Studies in Middle Eastern History)
A degree from some European schools, or sometimes just knowledge of a European language or a prolonged trip to Europe, came to be viewed as a key to success and political prominence. The first serious attempt at instituting reforms was undertaken by Mirza Taqi Khan Amir Kabir, Naser al-Din shah's first minister, whom he inherited together with the throne upon his father's death. The Amir Kabir's effort lay especially in restructuring, or rather structuring, since there was really no system worth speaking about, the judiciary.
Clerical and lay power politics often overshadowed religious considerations in determining the activist olama's views and stands. The 1891-1892 disturbances leading to the repeal of the tobacco concession granted by Naser al-Din shah to a British firm marked a spectacular increase in the olama's activities. Viewed as a watershed in the history of Iranian nationalism, in that it witnessed the birth of a peculiar modern Iranian tradition of mosquebazaar-intelligentsia alliance against the state, the tobacco affair brought some activist olama center stage in the arena of national politics.
In the last analysis, the activist olama proved to be easily manipulated by foreign agents, government officials, and conservative and radical groups, whose interests and goals did not always correspond to religious or national interests, despite repeated assurances to the contrary. But here lies a most pertinent question: Why did these officials and opposition groups, especially the religious dissidents, so persistently court the olama for their respective causes? To answer this question, one must bear in mind the peculiar socioreligious climate of Iran at the turn of the century, which allowed the traditional patron-client system to flourish.
Iran's First Revolution: Shi'ism and the Constitutional Revolution of 1905-1909 (Studies in Middle Eastern History) by Mangol Bayat