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The oil absorption rate of pigments affecting the drying qualities of oil-based paints is a variable and critical factor when underpainting is involved. Coloured pigments can be diffused, diluted or given additional 'body' by the use of extenders, certain inert, colourless or white pigments. The proportion in which extenders may be added to pigments varies with the individual pigment, but many of the organic dye pigments are so strongly saturated that a small addition of an extender enhances their colour.
Alum, blue vitriol, and iron, brass and tin were also used. Wood-chips, bark, roots, leaves, nuts and flowers were used as dyes. The most successful dyes were in the yellow range of hues. Blues and reds had to be imported, mostly madder and indigo. Green was made by top-dyeing indigo or Iogwood with a native yellow dye. Although the dyeing industry is now a sophisticated part of huge chemical industries with an enormous output and world-wide distribution, a cottage industry still survives in many parts of the world, partly as an economic necessity in poorer areas and partly, in sophisticated societies, in reaction to commercial technology on a vast scale, and the growing need for leisure activities.
In the past, glass prisms were first used to break up or disperse light into component colours. Now, diffraction gratings, composed of closely spaced trans- 34 Colour Observed mitting slits on a flat surface, are more frequently used. There are many applications of colour measurements in which the assessment of colour requires no visual comparison and the mathematical specification is appropriate. This applies, for example, to the spectro-photometer of tri-stimulus colorimeters already mentioned.
IEEE Standard Glossary Of Modeling And Simulation Terminology by IEEE