By Éric Gilli
Hydrogeology, the technological know-how of groundwater, calls for a multidisciplinary strategy related to many different sciences: floor hydrology, climatology, geology, geography, physics, chemistry, biology, and extra. This booklet takes a vast view, considers water as a unmarried entity, and provides many examples illustrating the range of present hydrogeological difficulties and the various clinical, technical, and social methods utilized in resolving them. it really is meant basically for college kids of Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, and actual Geography. it's going to even be beneficial to all gamers fascinated with water-related matters: hydrogeologists, geologists, soil scientists, agronomists, civil engineers, and builders.
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Additional info for Hydrogeology: Objectives, Methods, Applications
The average daily consumption per person today is over 200 liters, while it was 160 liters in 1990, 145 liters in 1980, and 130 liters in 1975. Dietary needs represent only a small portion of this quantity, on the order of 4% (1% for drinking and 3% for cooking), and it is therefore the other uses of water that have increased the most, following increases in quality of life and comfort levels. It has additionally been noted that, due to increasingly strict health standards and to the recent development of deep wells, groundwater has been increasingly exploited, as it is better protected from pollution than surface water.
But there is also an internal water cycle, which captures a small percentage of surface water and carries it to depth, through subduction zones, and then restores it to the surface through volcanism. 1 The origin of water on Earth The detection of water elsewhere in the Universe is made difficult by the Earth’s atmosphere, which absorbs much of the incoming radiation. Instruments must therefore be placed outside the atmosphere. The data thus collected, particularly by the European Space Agency’s infrared telescope, ISO (Infrared Spatial Observatory), and the American satellite SWAS (Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite), show that water exists almost everywhere in our galaxy.
In an artesian aquifer, any well or borehole will remain dry until it reaches the geologic roof of the aquifer. During the construction of a well in a site where the piezometric surface of the confined aquifer is at a higher elevation than its roof, water will rise in the well if the topographic surface is at a higher elevation than the piezometric surface (ascendant water). Water will flow out at the surface if the topographic surface is at a lower elevation (artesian flow). The term artesian comes from the Artois region, in Northern France, where this is a well-known phenomenon.
Hydrogeology: Objectives, Methods, Applications by Éric Gilli