By Gokhan Bacik (auth.)
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Extra resources for Hybrid Sovereignty in the Arab Middle East: The Cases of Kuwait, Jordan, and Iraq
It was the dominating European force that injected the Western model into different cultural zones. There have always been strong traditions of statehood in non-European lands. Thus, in no way has the Western experience been the only basis of statehood. Rather, the researcher should recognize a model in the encounter between the Western and non-Western forms. Therefore, a value-based comparison between the Western state and the non-Western state is flawed. 124 Thus, it would be incorrect to say that we have an all-compassing teleology.
Ottoman modernization had in fact introduced the earliest samples of modern state–society boundaries into Arab lands. The Western Powers in the Region The radical transformation of Arab lands occurred with the growth of the Western presence in the region. However, Western influence should be analyzed from several perspectives. First, the political competition between external powers for dominance in Arab lands was the historical setting. Second, the creation of new national spaces during and after the collapse of Th e Th e or e t ic a l F r a m e w or k 25 the Ottoman Empire was the work of the Western powers.
Once they gained that acknowledgment, they instrumentalized the sovereignty institution to consolidate their rule in their polities. Robert Jackson also differentiates the Third World states in terms of their statehood and sovereignty, and in so doing he isolates the quasi-state. Quasi-states are legal members of the international system. They are internationally recognized as the full juridical equals of other states on the basis of their formal institutions. 99 Scott Pegg presents the situation thus: States which are internationally recognized as full juridical equals, possessing the same rights and privileges as any other state, yet which manifestly lack all but the most rudimentary empirical capabilities.
Hybrid Sovereignty in the Arab Middle East: The Cases of Kuwait, Jordan, and Iraq by Gokhan Bacik (auth.)