By Steven Runciman
Sir Steven Runciman's 3 quantity A background of the Crusades, one of many nice classics of English old writing, is now being reissued. during this ultimate quantity, Runciman examines the revival of the Frankish nation on the time of the 3rd campaign until eventually its cave in a century later. The interwoven issues of the booklet comprise: Christiandom, the substitute of the classy Ayubites by means of the fewer sympathetic Mameluks as chief of the Moslem international, and the arrival of the Mongols. He incorporates a bankruptcy on structure and the humanities, and an epilogue at the final manifestations of the Crusading spirit.
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Additional resources for History of Crusades Vol 3, Kingdom of Acre and Later Crusades
Providers undoubtedly have complex goals in offering social services. Sectarian organizations may distribute or facilitate access to social services to fulﬁll altruistic commitments, present themselves as the protectors and guarantors of well-being, gain supporters, or consolidate their control over territory and people. As I show empirically, speciﬁc political goals—and not only charitable motivations—underlie the provision of social services by these groups. In this book, I do not focus on the impact of services on the recipients, but I do assume that service provision has the potential to garner political support (see chapter 6).
2004; MacLean 2010). The larger sectarian organizations examined in this book provide social services directly through their own facilities and programs. All are involved in mediating access to public entitlements or beneﬁts provided by other nonstate actors. In the book, I focus on three broad service domains in which they are especially active: primary health care and hospitalization, primary and secondary schooling, and the provision of food and other forms of short-term material assistance.
Control over resources does not yield insights into how sectarian parties use their resources and, speciﬁcally, whom they target with welfare goods. Political goals—and not just budgets—shape how sectarian parties 20 Chapter 1 deliver services. All sectarian parties may aspire to construct extensive welfare networks, but the availability of resources does not determine patterns of distributing welfare goods. A fourth type of explanation highlights intercommunal relative deprivation. For example, the historical underdevelopment of the Shiʿa community in modern Lebanon might compel Hezbollah to compensate for a record of deprivation by favoring in-group members.
History of Crusades Vol 3, Kingdom of Acre and Later Crusades by Steven Runciman