By Walter E. Kaegi
This booklet evaluates the lifestyles and empire of the pivotal but arguable Byzantine emperor Heraclius (ad. 610-641), a latest of the Prophet Muhammad. His stormy war-torn reign is important for figuring out the history to basic adjustments within the Balkans and the center East, together with the emergence of Islam. Heraclius' abilities enabled him to seize and recapture vital territory, together with Jerusalem, Syria and Egypt. but, they proved to be of little worth whilst he faced early Islamic conquests.
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Extra resources for Heraclius: emperor of Byzantium
The teacher looking to blend Suﬁsm with modern educational methods, pastoral nomads pursuing communal rivalries by using links to the new bureaucracy, the ‘tribal’ leader using established rights and authority to shift his followers from nomadism to settled agriculture and to introduce modern schooling, all practised such negotiations. So did army oﬃcers buying into land and business, artisans acquiring new skills, or intellectuals combining modern science with Shi’a piety, just as many Iranians modiﬁed ‘traditional’ dress rather than abandoning it wholesale.
While the army and gendarmerie brought state power into rural areas through conscription, policing and military action against ‘tribal’ opponents of the state, the impact of new inﬂuences outside towns was limited. The transition which took place is best seen as a set of speciﬁc changes whose uneven impact differentiated various communities rather than a process aﬀecting all Iranians. There were clear areas of diﬀerence between urban and rural settlements, but also between important provincial and economic centres and smaller towns, and between Tehran and all other cities.
33 Elite notions that social and political order rested on the bond between the twin bases of stable government and religious authority supported strong ideological associations between religious and political power. The emphasis given here to religious inﬂuences and features within the communities and hierarchies of nineteenth-century Iran should not suggest that these elements were all-pervasive. The capacity of ordinary Iranians to make much of their spiritual lives for themselves created a cultural spectrum running from localised autonomy from learned religion to explicitly anti-clerical The ‘religious’ and the ‘social’ positions.
Heraclius: emperor of Byzantium by Walter E. Kaegi