By J. Colomer
The subject of electoral reform is an exceptionally well timed one. The speeded up growth of the variety of new democracies on the earth generates expanding calls for for recommendation at the number of electoral principles; while, a brand new reformism in good tested democracies seeks new formulation favoring either extra consultant associations and extra responsible rulers. This e-book addresses the theoretical and comparative problems with electoral reform when it comes to democratization, political concepts in confirmed democracies and the relative functionality of other electoral structures. Case reports on nearly each significant democracy or democratizing kingdom on the earth are integrated.
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Extra resources for Handbook of Electoral System Choice
But the two parts often did not coincide, an occurrence which gradually moved decision-makers to lean to the side of qualifying voting results not by the dignity of voters but by numbers. It was Pope Alexander III who formally replaced the unanimity principle with the rule of two-thirds qualified majority for electing popes and bishops after 1179 (the election of bishops by the clergy was not officially abandoned until 1917). Monastic orders, including Benedicts, adopted the same rule. Alexander III probably took inspiration from previous experiences with less-than-unanimity rules for elections of abbots, as well as from Venice’s sophisticated voting procedure to elect the city’s Duke (Baldwin, 1968).
From this perspective, lots can be considered a clearly better and less risky procedure for selecting public officials than hereditary succession, cooptation by incumbent office-holders or the buying (or auctioning) of offices, by which the probability that outliers, eccentric or incapable candidates may be appointed is dramatically high. Also, likely winners by lottery may not be so different – in personal characteristics and professional skills – from those selected by certain modern political processes involving convoluted internal interactions of party political organizations, hazardous electoral campaigns and disparate voting procedures.
Ruffini, Eoardo ( 1976) Il principio maggioritario. Profilo storico. Milan: Adelphi. Lottery The choosing of public officers by drawing lots is an old tradition that can be found in ancient and medieval local democracies, modern private settings and some international organizations – as has just been mentioned in the previous section. In all these cases, lotteries are a device to preserve the central role of the assembly of members to make decisions on the most relevant issues, typically by acclamation, assent or other forms of unanimity, on the assumption that the identification of a common interest should not be too difficult a task.
Handbook of Electoral System Choice by J. Colomer