By ACI Committee 364
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Offers a comparatively short creation to conjugate duality in either finite- and infinite-dimensional difficulties. An emphasis is put on the elemental value of the thoughts of Lagrangian functionality, saddle-point, and saddle-value. normal examples are drawn from nonlinear programming, approximation, stochastic programming, the calculus of adaptations, and optimum keep watch over
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Stability studies are required to demonstrate that the particular system will be stable under normal and abnormal conditions. Such studies give information on such design features as the necessity for channel inlet gagging (in a BWR to make the total channel pressure drop less voidage dependent), pressure relief systems, or the avoidance of critical time constants in the circuit. Pump characteristics would also be tested for their satisfactory behavior following flow disturbances. + See Davies and Potter (13).
The energy dependence of the fuel absorption cross section for different isotopes (thermal system). 4 Feedback Effects 29 Thus, in a plutonium dominated system, the coefficient is usually positive but is very small in magnitude, whereas in a U dominated system the coefficient is negative, but any value can result from this competition process. However, the temperature of the system also has other effects which cannot be neglected: as the temperature and the energy Ε increases, the diffusion length increases, giving more leakage in small cores; the relative absorption in the fuel ( / = Σ /Σ ) increases for fine structure changes and the control rod effectiveness increases.
1 The Term dTJdz The term dTJdz in Eq. 27) complicates the solution because of the second implicit independent variable z. We can evade the complication by averaging the coolant temperature and assuming a mean gradient. This is good if the flux distribution is sinusoidal. 39) e where T is now a channel volume weighted mean. However when temperatures are used to predict reactivity changes, whole reactor averages are required rather than component averages and these need to be weighted, according to perturbation theory, by the square of the flux φ (3).
Guide for evaluation of concrete structures prior to rehabilitation by ACI Committee 364