By John F Vallentine
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Additional info for Grazing management
If the available carbon buffer is limited, as is likely for plants under many grazing conditions, the photosynthetic capacity of the remaining plant canopy is of critical importance. T h e degree of defoliation during the growing season should allow enough leaf area to remain to pro vide carbohydrates for regrowth, rather than prolonging dependence upon stored TAC (Burns, 1984; Waller et al, 1985). If adequate leaf area remains after defoliation, the plant can regrow with minimal demand upon stor age TAC.
Root sinks are generally weaker sinks in most species, with the weakest sink generally being the storage of reserve carbohydrates. Both carbohydrate and nitrogen were shown by Welker and Briske (1986) to be shared among tillers of individual little bluestem plants. Both DEFOLIATION A N D P L A N T PHYSIOLOGY 43 resources were rapidly transported from parent to daughter tillers, and the transport continued even after the newly initiated tillers had developed several roots and leaves and attained a height of 4 to 12 inches.
This results in some plants being crushed, severed, or bruised by the hooves. Trampling losses of forage, resulting in a direct addition to the mulch component, may become excessive in dense forage stands and be a major factor contributing to utilization inefficiency. Trampling damage and loss of forage on arid and semiarid rangelands is generally much less than on mesic sites. Trampling losses were studied on native mountainous, forb-grass range by Laycock and Harniss (1974).
Grazing management by John F Vallentine