By Clifford Embleton (eds.)
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Extra info for Glaciers and Glacial Erosion
He wrote that, for the fortnight previous to hearing from me, he and his companions had been much impressed with the discordant relations of lateral valleys over the waters of the Alaskan fiords, and he suggested that such laterals should be called 'hanging valleys' - a term 54 William Morris Davis which I have since then adopted. He fully agreed that hanging valleys presented unanswerable testimony for strong glacial erosion, as will be stated in his forthcoming report on the geology of the Expedition.
The ice removed, a layer of fine mud covered the rock, not composed, however, alone of the clayey limestone mud, but of sharp sand, derived from the granitic moraines of the glacier, and brought down with it from the opposite side of the valley. Upon examining the face of the ice removed from contact with the rock, we found it set all over with sharp angular fragments, from the size of grains of sand to that of a cherry, or larger, of the same species of rock, and which were so firmly fixed in the ice as to demonstrate the impossibility of such a surface being forcibly urged forward without sawing and tearing any comparatively soft body which might be below it.
Some erosion may be accomplished under the upper fields of snow and neve, but it is believed that more destructive work is done beneath the ice. The erosion is accomplished by weathering, scouring, plucking and corrading. Weathering occurs where variations of external temperature penetrate to the bed-rock, as is particularly the case between the seracs of glacial cascades, and again along the line of deep crevasses or bergschrunds that are usually formed around the base of reservoir walls, which are thus transformed into corries (cirques, karen, botner) as has been suggested by several observers; scouring is the work of rock waste dragged along beneath the glacier, by which the bed-rock is ground down, striated and smoothed; plucking results from friction under long-lasting heavy pressure, by which blocks of rock are removed bodily from the glacier bed and banks; corrading is the work of subglacial streams, which must be 58 William Morris Davis well charged with tools, large and small, and which must often flow under heavy pressure and with great energy.
Glaciers and Glacial Erosion by Clifford Embleton (eds.)