By Stanley E. Manahan
Fundamentals of Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry: Sustainable technological know-how, Fourth Edition covers university-level environmental chemistry, with toxicological chemistry built-in in the course of the e-book. This re-creation of a bestseller offers an up to date textual content with an elevated emphasis on sustainability and eco-friendly chemistry. it's geared up in line with the 5 spheres of Earth’s atmosphere: (1) the hydrosphere (water), (2) the ambience (air), (3) the geosphere (solid Earth), (4) the biosphere (life), and (5) the anthrosphere (the a part of the surroundings made and utilized by humans).
The first bankruptcy defines environmental chemistry and every of the 5 environmental spheres. the second one bankruptcy offers the fundamentals of toxicological chemistry and its courting to environmental chemistry. next chapters are grouped by means of sphere, starting with the hydrosphere and its environmental chemistry, water toxins, sustainability, and water as nature’s so much renewable source. Chapters then describe the ambience, its constitution and value for safeguarding existence in the world, air pollution, and the sustainability of atmospheric caliber. the writer explains the character of the geosphere and discusses soil for turning out to be nutrients in addition to geosphere sustainability. He additionally describes the biosphere and its sustainability.
The ultimate sphere defined is the anthrosphere. The textual content explains human impact at the setting, together with weather, toxins in and by means of the anthrosphere, and technique of maintaining this sphere. It additionally discusses renewable, nonpolluting power and introduces office tracking. For readers desiring extra uncomplicated chemistry history, the ebook contains chapters on basic chemistry and natural chemistry. This up-to-date version comprises 3 new chapters, new examples and figures, and lots of new homework problems.
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Additional info for Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry
Chemical compound 20. chemical formula 21. ions 22. cations 23. anions 24. ionic 25. molecular mass 26. multiplying the atomic mass of each element by the relative number of atoms of the element, then adding all the values obtained for each element in the compound 27. Chemical reactions 28. chemical equations 29. balanced 30. yields 31. reactants 32. products © 2001 CRC Press LLC 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62.
52 is proportional to the amount of matter in an object, the metric unit for which is the 53 . Length in the metric system is expressed in units based upon the 54 . The basic metric unit of volume is the 55 . In ˚C, ˚F, and K, respectively, water freezes at 56 57 and boils at . Boiling temperature is defined as 58 . Energy that flows from a warmer to a colder object is called 59 , © 2001 CRC Press LLC commonly expressed in units of 60 or 61 . 62 63 is force per unit area, some of the common units for which are .
1) Density is useful for identifying and characterizing pure substances and mixtures. For example, the density of a mixture of automobile system antifreeze and water, used to prevent the engine coolant from freezing in winter or boiling in summer, varies with the composition of the mixture. Its composition and, therefore, the degree of protection that it offers against freezing can be estimated by measuring its density and relating that through a table to the freezing temperature of the mixture.
Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry by Stanley E. Manahan