By Adrian Howkins
Forever lined in ice and snow, the mountainous Antarctic Peninsula stretches southwardd in the direction of the South Pole the place it merges with the most important and coldest mass of ice wherever in the world. but faraway from being an otherworldly "Pole Apart," the quarter has the main contested political heritage of any a part of the Antarctic Continent. because the commence of the 20th century, Argentina, Britain, and Chile have made overlapping sovereignty claims, whereas the us and Russia have reserved rights to the total continent. the surroundings has been on the center of those disputes over sovereignty, putting the Antarctic Peninsula at a desirable intersection among diplomatic background and environmental background.
In Frozen Empires, Adrian Howkins argues that there was a primary continuity within the ways that imperial powers have used the surroundings to aid their political claims within the Antarctic Peninsula sector. British officers argued that the creation of valuable medical wisdom concerning the Antarctic helped to justify British possession. Argentina and Chile made the case that the Antarctic Peninsula belonged to them because of geographical proximity, geological continuity, and a common experience of connection. regardless of numerous demanding situations and claims, besides the fact that, there hasn't ever been a real decolonization of the Antarctic Peninsula area. as a substitute, imperial assertions that respective entities have been undertaking technological know-how "for the nice of humanity" have been reformulated throughout the phrases of the 1959 Antarctic Treaty, and Antarctica's "frozen empires" stay in position to this present day. In arguing for imperial continuity within the area, Howkins counters the authentic old narrative of Antarctica, which rests on a dichotomy among "bad" sovereignty claims and "good" clinical learn. Frozen Empires in its place means that technological know-how, politics, and the surroundings were inextricably attached through the background of the Antarctic Peninsula region--and stay so--and indicates how political status within the guise of accomplishing "science for the great of humanity" maintains to steer overseas weather negotiations.
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Extra info for Frozen empires : an environmental history of the Antarctic peninsula
The Français expedition took place from 1903 to 1905 and the Pourquoi Pas? expedition lasted from 1908 to 1910. Neither voyage was without its difficulties, but in contrast to the drama of the expeditions of de Gerlache and Nordenskjöld, both of Charcot’s voyages went relatively smoothly. The Belgica expedition had reported a possible strait across the peninsula just to the south of the Lemaire Chanel, and an important goal of Charcot’s first expedition was to ascertain whether or not such a feature existed, and by extension whether the northern part of the peninsula was really an island.
During the voyage of the Belgica, Arctowski made numerous observations and used bathometric readings and rock samples to demonstrate this geological connection. He suggested that the mountains followed an arcing underwater chain, rather than just crossing the Drake Passage directly from Tierra del Fuego. 67 Nordenskjöld was a professor at Uppsala University, and he wanted to further investigate the geological connection between the South American continent and Antarctica. In the early 1890s, the Norwegian Carl Anton Larsen had made a number of interesting fossil discoveries on the Weddell Sea side of the Antarctic Peninsula during his exploratory whaling expeditions.
A somewhat unlikely alliance developed to keep Antarctica off the agenda of the Eleventh General Assembly. Argentina and Chile focused on persuading other countries in Latin America to vote against discussion of the topic, while Britain used its influence in Europe and the Dominions to urge a rejection. These combined efforts proved effective, and India was unable to get enough votes to have Antarctica debated at the United Nations. Defeat of the Indian proposal showed what an alliance of Antarctic claimant countries 19 Introduction 19 could achieve, and it was an important precedent in the international negotiations that would follow.
Frozen empires : an environmental history of the Antarctic peninsula by Adrian Howkins