Foucault on Freedom - download pdf or read online

By Johanna Oksala

ISBN-10: 0521847796

ISBN-13: 9780521847797

Freedom and the topic have been guiding topics for Michel Foucault all through his philosophical profession. Johanna Oksala identifies the various interpretations of freedom in his philosophy and examines 3 significant divisions of it: the archaeological, the genealogical, and the moral. She demonstrates that during order to totally get pleasure from Foucault's "project", we needs to comprehend his complicated courting to phenomenology, and discusses Foucault's therapy of the physique with regards to contemporary feminist paintings in this subject.

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In terms of natural history, life did not create a fundamental distinction in the order of things, it was not an obvious threshold dividing certain forms of knowledge from others. It was only one category in the classification of beings (OT, 161). According to Foucault, the idea of biology was not possible in the classical episteme: ‘Natural history is nothing more than the nomination of the visible’ (OT, 132). The task of natural history was to represent the visible order of nature by ascribing a name to living beings, and in that name to name the character that situated them within the taxonomic system of identities and differences.

This order behind ordering fundamentally but ‘unconsciously’ forms and structures scientific discourse. Foucault describes his analysis: Quite obviously such an analysis does not belong to the history of ideas or of science: it is rather an inquiry whose aim is to rediscover on what basis knowledge and theory became possible; within what space of order knowledge was constituted; on the basis of what historical a priori and in the element of what positivity, ideas could appear, sciences be established, experience be reflected in philosophies, rationalities be formed, only, perhaps, to dissolve and vanish soon afterwards.

OT, 251–2)11 The fundamental change from one episteme to another is again recognizable in the specific changes in the areas of knowledge that Foucault examines. Language evolved with its own density, and therefore also philology. Words no longer simply represented things, but for a word to be able to convey meaning it had to belong to a grammatical totality which, in relation to the word, was primary, fundamental and determining (OT, 281). In biology, living beings were ordered and conceived of on the basis of functional homogeneity, not visible identities and differences.

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Foucault on Freedom by Johanna Oksala

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