By Lencioni Riccardo
Few fields of medication have witnessed such awesome growth because the prognosis and therapy of liver tumors. Advances in imaging know-how, the advance of novel distinction brokers, and the advent of optimized scanning protocols have vastly facilitated the non-invasive detection and characterization of focal liver lesions. moreover, image-guided recommendations for percutaneous tumor ablation became an authorised substitute remedy for sufferers with inoperable liver melanoma. This booklet presents a finished and updated assessment of the position of diagnostic and interventional radiology in recognize of liver tumors. the quantity strikes from heritage sections on technique and segmental liver anatomy to the most sections at the analysis of benign and malignant liver lesions. An built-in process, curious about the correlation of ultrasound, CT, and MR imaging findings, is gifted. eventually, a whole part describes the rules, equipment, and result of percutaneous tumor ablation techniques.
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Extra resources for Focal Liver Lesions Medical Radiology
AJR Am J Roentgenol 179:67–73 Marchianò A (2003) MDCT of primary liver malignancies. Eur Radiol 13:M26-M30 Meier S, Schenk A, Mildenberger P et al (2004) Evaluation of a new software tool for the automatic volume calculation of hepatic tumors. First results. Rofo Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Neuen Bildgeb Verfahr 176:234–238 Miller FH, Butler RS, Hoff FL et al (1998) Using triphasic helical CT to detect focal hepatic lesions in patients with neoplasms. AJR Am J Roentgenol 171:643-649 Murakami T, Kim T, Takamura M, et al (2001) Hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma: detection with double arterial phase multi-detector row helical CT.
1. Suggested MDCT imaging protocols, according to clinical indication UN EAP LAP PVP EP Non-hepatopathic patient No history of neoplasia + – + + ± Non-hepatopathic patient History of neoplasia (suspected hypovascular metastases) + – – + – Non-hepatopathic patient History of neoplasia (suspected hypervascular metastases) – – + + ± Hepatopathic patient ? ± + + + UN, unenhanced scan; EAP, early arterial phase; LAP, late arterial phase; PVP, portal venous phase; EP, equilibrium phase. a c b Fig. 9a–c.
Diffusion is the thermally induced motion of water molecules in biologic tissues. The abdominal organs have unique diffusion characteristics, as measured with the apparent diffusion coefﬁcient (ADC). The results of 37 some recent studies have shown that benign lesions, such as hepatic cysts and hemangiomas, have higher ADCs than malignant lesions (hepatocellular carcinoma and metastases), where the large amount of tumoral cells restricts the water diffusion (Fig. 6) (Ichikawa et al. 1998a; Kim et al.
Focal Liver Lesions Medical Radiology by Lencioni Riccardo