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Additional info for Exposures from the Uranium Series With Emphasis on Radon and Its Daughters
Water treatment in municipal systems usually removes suspended solids by filtration, while flocculation plus additional filtration is required to reduce hardness in some supplies. The latter operation also reduces radium, lead and polonium contents to some extent. Home water softeners are also effective in removing the same radionuclides. Exposure of the population, thus, can only be assessed by measuring the actual domestic supplies and data on raw waters are only of scientific interest. The relevant material is presented in order of the radionuclides involved.
Areas of enhanced natural background also exist in both Canada and the United States. These sites involve relatively small population groups but usually show the highest exposure rates of those measured. Dose rates and dose equivalent rates for the exposures described are summarized in Section 8. 6. Drinking Water The discussion of radioactivity in drinking water has been separated from that for the diet, chiefly because water is almost always of local origin. Thus it is expected to vary more from place to place than foods which tend to be distributed nationally.
The purpose of this section is to describe the relevant measurements that have been made. These measurements have been directed towards determining: (1) the concentrations of radon and radon daughters present in the home; (2) the means of radon entry into the home; (3) the pathways followed by the radon in the home; (4) the source of the levels measured-in nature, human activity or a combination of both; (5) the variation of radon concentration by area in the home, by season, by ventilation practices, by household activities, and by occupancy and other factors; (6) the means of reducing radon daughter concentrations in the home; (7) the doses and risks that can be expected from this radioactivity.
Exposures from the Uranium Series With Emphasis on Radon and Its Daughters by National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurement