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By Pietro Grilli di Cortona, Cecilia Manzi, Aline Pennisi, Federica Ricca, Bruno Simeone

ISBN-10: 0898714222

ISBN-13: 9780898714227

This monograph bargains a scientific quantitative method of the research, assessment, and layout of electoral platforms. this day, electoral reform is of shock to baby democracies in addition to many aged ones. The authors use mathematical types and automated approaches, whilst attainable, to unravel a few of the difficulties that come up within the comparability of present platforms in addition to within the development of recent ones. One virtue of the publication is the emphasis on unmarried- and multiple-criteria optimization equipment. This robust software equipment might help political researchers overview and select a suitable electoral procedure. A basic formal version is incorporated in addition to a coding procedure to explain, determine, and classify electoral structures. evaluate standards and the corresponding functionality signs are mentioned.

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Nevertheless, the first-past-the-post system is largely used in Anglo-Saxon countries, such as Great Britain, the United States, and New Zealand, as well as in Italy; the double ballot is adopted in France and was also used in Italy between 1861 and 1919 (except for a short period 1882-1892); the alternative transferable vote is adopted in Australia. First-Past-the-Post The philosophy of this system is "winner takes all" and nothing is left to the losers. It is the most drastic electoral system, and perhaps the most ancient, based on the principle of territorial representation.

For example, the string represents an electoral formula which assigns seats at district level with the natural quota proportional method and, then, it assigns the remaining seats at regional level with d'Hondt's proportional divisor method. Moreover, the notation "," can be used to represent mixed electoral systems, so that, for example, the string denotes a mixed system in which one half of the total number of seats is assigned by plurality and the other half by d'Hondt's divisor method. On the basis of these parameters we can already represent, with good approximation, nearly every electoral system in use, only with a string.

Finally, set v%+l) = w(f + rj^ for all h € K^t+l\ and go to iteration t + 1. Case 2. A^ is empty. In this case the same mechanism as the alternative transferable vote is used. Let c be the candidate in K^ such that Vc = min/jg^t) vh . Then candidate c is eliminated, the new set of candidates becomes K^t+l^ — K^ — {c}, and the new number of votes v to each candidate h in K^t+1^ is given by the number of ballots where h ranks first among all candidates in K^t+1\ Notice that v^ is equal to the previous number of votes v^ , plus the number of votes transferred from c to h: the latter number is precisely equal to the number of ballots where h ranks first among the candidates in K^t+l\ but he or she is preceded by candidate c.

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Evaluation and Optimization of Electoral Systems by Pietro Grilli di Cortona, Cecilia Manzi, Aline Pennisi, Federica Ricca, Bruno Simeone

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