By Dietmar Spengler, Elisabeth Binder
The box of neuroendocrinology has prolonged from the preliminary curiosity within the hypothalamic keep watch over of pituitary secretion to include a number of reciprocal interactions among the imperative anxious method (CNS) and endocrine structures within the coordination of homeostasis and numerous physiological responses from version to illness. such a lot lately, epigenetic mechanisms have been well-known for his or her position within the improvement of the neuroendocrine axes in addition to within the mediation of gene-environment interactions in stress-related psychiatry issues.
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Extra info for Epigenetics and Neuroendocrinology : Clinical Focus on Psychiatry, Volume 2
Within the central nervous system in particular, PACAP plays a critical role as a neurotransmitter peptide involved in neurogenesis and neuroprotection (Reglodi et al. 2011). Similar to other members of its protein superfamily, PACAP is a hormone ligand that mediates regulation of these various systems through binding to guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (Segre and Goldring 1993). PACAP38 and PACAP27 are ligands for three G protein-coupled receptors, two (VPAC1 and VPAC2) of which also bind to vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the other one (PAC1) binds with highest affinity to PACAP itself (Shivers et al.
J Neurosci 30: 591–599 Jones PA (2012) Functions of DNA methylation: islands, start sites, gene bodies and beyond. Nat Rev Genet 13:484–492 Kang CB, Hong Y, Dhe-Paganon S, Yoon HS (2008) FKBP family proteins: immunophilins with versatile biological functions. Neurosignals 16:318–325 Kessler RC, Davis CG, Kendler KS (1997) Childhood adversity and adult psychiatric disorder in the US National Comorbidity Survey. Psychol Med 27:1101–1119 Klengel T, Binder EB (2013) Allele-specific epigenetic modification: a molecular mechanism for gene-environment interactions in stress-related psychiatric disorders?
Both exons 14 and 15 are also excluded from these two isoform types. (This schematic figure is adapted from Shen et al. (2013)) 2 Genomic Regulation of the PACAP 27 Several combinations of both EC1 and IC3 variants allow for differential functioning within various tissue types. Both the PAC1-null and PAC1-hop1 receptors can stimulate AC in addition to PLC, but with differential levels of activation, which are dependent on type of ligand, tissue, and other splice events (Blechman and Levkowitz 2013).
Epigenetics and Neuroendocrinology : Clinical Focus on Psychiatry, Volume 2 by Dietmar Spengler, Elisabeth Binder